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Blast Mitigation: Experimental and Numerical Studies covers both experimental and numerical aspects of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads and its mitigation. The authors present the most up-to-date understanding from laboratory studies and computational analysis for researchers working in the field of blast loadings and their effect on material and structural failure,  develop designs for  lighter and highly efficient structural members for blast energy absorption, discuss vulnerability of underground structures, present methods for dampening blast overpressures, discuss structural post blast collapse and give attention to underwater explosion and implosion effects on submerged infrastructure and mitigation measures for this environment.

This book also:

Presents experimental methods of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads

Includes computational analysis of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads

Offers mitigation measures for structures in various environments

Relates lab experiments to larger field tests

Features more than 150 illustrations

Blast Mitigation: Experimental and Numerical Studies is an ideal book for graduate students, practicing engineers and researchers working in the field of blast mitigation.

Keywords

Applications of the Theory to Structural Problems Blast Loading of Structures Constitutive Relations Penetration and Perforation Stress Waves and Stress Mitigation in Solids Structural Crashworthiness and Failure Theories of Plasticity
  • Arun Shukla
  • Yapa D. S. Rajapakse
  • Mary Ellen Hynes
  1. 1.University of Rhode Island, Dept. of Mechanical, Industrial and SystSimon Ostrach ProfessorKingstonUSA
  2. 2.Office of Naval Research, Solid MechanicsProgram ManagerArlingtonUSA
  3. 3.U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology DirectorateDirector of ResearchWashingtonUSA

About the editors

Dr. Arun Shukla is Simon Ostrach Professor within the Department of Mechanical, Industrial and Systems Engineering University of Rhode Island.

Dr. Yapa D. S. Rajapakse is Program Manager, Solid Mechanics
Office of Naval Research.

Dr. Mary Ellen Hynes is Director of Research, Infrastructure & Geophysical Division, Science and Technology Directorate, U.S. Department of Homeland Security.

Bibliographic information

Источник: https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007%2F978-1-4614-7267-4.pdf


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Dressings and topical agents for treating venous leg ulcers

Results

Description of studies

Results of the search

Electronic searches identified 1836 records after deduplication. Of these, we excluded 1024 after initial screening of title and abstract. Full‐text screening of 812 records led to the identification of 127 relevant reports of 78 studies (see Figure 1).

We included studies that compared two eligible interventions (see criteria for inclusion ‐ interventions (Types of interventions). We also included studies that assessed only one eligible intervention, but which provided linking for the network of eligible studies. Therefore there were three types of included study:

  • studies which compared two eligible interventions and which were included in the NMA;

  • studies which compared two eligible interventions but which could not be joined into the NMA;

  • studies which compared an eligible intervention with one or more ineligible interventions but which strengthened the network by linking other two or more eligible interventions.

A total of 78 studies with 7014 randomised participants was included in one or more of these categories.

An updated search in March 2018 retrieved 100 additional records. Of these 23 required consideration in detail. Two records were added as additional publications to studies already identified EF Commander 19.05 patch - Crack Key For U excluded studies in the review. Ten studies (11 records) could be clearly excluded (see excluded studies) and nine studies were added to Studies awaiting classification. One study was added to ongoing studies (see Characteristics of ongoing studies).

Included studies

There were 47 studies that we joined into the network with two relevant interventions as outlined in Data synthesis: (Armstrong 1997; Backhouse 1987; Banerjee 1997; Blair 1988a; Blair 1988b; Bowszyc 1995; Brandrup 1990; Callam 1992; Casoni EF Commander 19.05 patch - Crack Key For U Charles 2002; Dimakakos 2009; Fogh 2012; Gottrup 2008; Hanft 2006; Hansson 1998; Harding 2001; Humbert 2013; Ivins 2006; Jørgensen 2005; Kelechi 2012; Kucharzewski 2013; Lanzara 2008; Leaper 1991; Meaume 2012; Meredith 1988; Moffatt 1992a; Moffatt 1992b; Nelson 2007; Norkus 2005; Ohlsson 1994; Ormiston 1985; Petkov 1997; Romanelli 2015a; Rubin 1990; Schulze 2001; EF Commander 19.05 patch - Crack Key For U 1994; Senet 2014; Smith 1992; Smith 1994; Sopata 2016; Stacey 2000; Taddeucci 2004; Thomas 1997; Tumino 2008; Vanscheidt 2012; Vin 2002; Zuccarelli 1992).

A further 13 studies (Alvarez 2012; Beckert 2006; Bishop 1992; Caprio 1992; De Araujo 2016; Dereure 2012a; Greguric 1994; Luiza 2015; Kalis 1993; Moss 1987; Romero‐Cerecero 2012; Solovastru 2015; Tarvainen 1988), all assessed comparisons between two eligible treatments, which could be linked to the network but where one or both interventions was considered to be only partly relevant and therefore only the direct evidence was considered, or the trial was included only in a sensitivity analysis. These interventions included dextranomer, A. Pinchinsensis extract, ozonated oil, shale oil, papain, magnesium sulphate and cellulose. Summaries of these comparisons are provided in Appendix 4.

There were a number of studies that evaluated relevant interventions but which could we could not connect into the network. This included the following studies that compared a particular treatment with 'standard care' (which was either not specified or included a range of different dressings or topical treatments): Arnold 1994; Brown 2014; Jull 2008; Harcup 1986; Lindsay 1986; Michaels 2009; Steele 1986. Other studies not joined into the network were Hokkam 2011, which compared two interventions which did not otherwise link to the network: phenytoin with no treatment and Salim 1992, which compared sulphadryl powders to inactive powder. Summaries of these comparisons are also provided in Appendix 4.

We included nine studies that had only one relevant intervention in an expanded base‐case to strengthen the network (Arenbergerova 2013; Biland 1985; Rasmussen 1991; Robson 1995; Robson 2001; Robson 2004; Senet 2003; Senet 2011; Stacey 1997). These were all two‐arm trials with one relevant intervention from the base‐case or partly relevant interventions such as emollient cream or an ineligible intervention.

Summary details of all trials in the review are shown in Table 2; a summary of the status of individual studies within the review and the networks is shown in Table 3, which clearly denotes which trials are included in the base‐case and the sensitivity analyses and which are included only in the review and not in the network.

2

Studies: status in network/review

StudyInterventionsNo eligible interventionsExpanded base‐caseBase‐caseSensitivity analysisRisk of bias
Alvarez 2012cCellulose
Nonadherent
2XXXHigh
Arenbergerova 2013bHydrofibre
Blood hitmanpro 3.8.0 product key - Crack Key For U rowspan="1" colspan="1">1
XXVery high
Armstrong 1997aAlginate
Hydrofibre
EF Commander 19.05 patch - Crack Key For U colspan="1">2High
Arnold 1994cHydrocolloid
Iodine OR nonadherent
2XXXVery high
Backhouse 1987aNonadherent
Hydrocolloid
2Low/Unclear
Banerjee 1997aNonadherent
Film
2Very high
Beckert 2006cShale oil
Hydrogel
2XXXLow/unclear
Biland 1985bBlood product
Emollient cream
1XXHigh
Bishop 1992bTripeptide copper
Emollient cream
SSD
3XXLow/unclear
Blair 1988aaNonadherent
Hydrocolloid
2High
Blair 1988baNonadherent
SSD
2High
Bowszyc 1995aFoam
Hydrocolloid
2High
Brandrup 1990aHydrocolloid
Zinc oxide
2High
Brown 2014cSilica gel
Alternative traditional dressings
2XXXVery high
Callam 1992aNonadherent
Foam
 Very high
Caprio 1992cHydrocolloid
Collagen
2Xthundersoft gif maker colspan="1">XXLow/unclear
Casoni 2002aNonadherent
Hyaluronic+Povidone
2XLow/unclear
Charles 2002aFoam
Hydrocolloid
2Low/unclear
De Araujo 2016bBlood product
Hydrogel
Papain
3 (2 in network)XXLow/unclear
Dereure 2012abHyaluronic acid
Emollient cream
2XXLow/unclear
Dimakakos 2009aFoam
Silver
2Low/unclear
Fogh 2012aFoam
Silver
RogueKiller Premium Offline Installer rowspan="1" colspan="1">√High
Gottrup 2008aFoam
Silver
2High
Greguric 1994cMagnesium sulphate
Hydrocolloid
2XXXHigh
Hanft 2006aPMM silver
Hydrocolloid
2High
Hansson 1998aNonadherent
Cadexomer iodine
Hydrocolloid
3High
Harcup 1986cStandard care
Cadexomer iodine
2XXXLow/unclear
Harding 2001aAlginate
Hydrofibre
2Very high
Hokkam 2011cPhenytoin
No treatment
2XXXLow/unclear
Humbert 2013aHyaluronic acid
Saline gauze
2High
Ivins 2006aFoam
Silver
2Low/unclear
Jørgensen 2005aFoam
Silver
2Low/unclear
Jull 2008cHoney
Standard care
2XXXVery high
Kalis 1993cHydrocolloid
Dextranomer
2XXXVery high
Kelechi 2012aNonadherent
Hydrofibre
2High
Kucharzewski 2013aHydrocolloid
Silver
2High
Lanzara 2008aPMM silver
Foam
2High
Leaper 1991aNonadherent
Hydrocolloid
2High
Lindsay 1986cStandard care
Cadexomer iodine
2XXXLow/unclear
Luiza 2015cPapain
Hydrogel
2XXXHigh
Meaume 2012aPMM
Foam
2High
Meredith 1988aNonadherent
Hydrocolloid
2Low/unclear
Michaels 2009cPointwise Activation key rowspan="1" colspan="1">2XXXHigh
Moffatt 1992aaNonadherent
Hydrocolloid
2Low/unclear
Moffatt 1992baAlginate
Nonadeherent
2Low/unclear
Moss 1987cCadexomer iodine
Dextranomer
2XXXVery high
Nelson 2007aNonadherent
Hydrocolloid
2Very high
Norkus 2005aFoam
Hydrocolloid
2Very high
Ohlsson 1994aHydrocolloid
Saline gauze
2Low/unclear
Ormiston 1985bCadexomer iodine
gentian violet
2XHigh
Petkov 1997aPMM
Alginate
2Low/unclear
Rasmussen 1991bGrowth factor
Hydrocolloid
1XXSketchUp PRO 2018 License - Free Activators rowspan="1" colspan="1">High
Robson 1995bGrowth factor
Nonadherent
1XXLow/unclear
Robson 2001bGrowth factor
Nonadherent
1XXHigh
Robson 2004bGrowth factor
Nonadherent
1XXLow/unclear
Romanelli 2015aaPMM
Alginate
2Low/unclear
Romero‐Cerecero 2012cA. Pichinchensis
Alginate
2XXXHigh
Rubin 1990aFoam
paste bandage
2High
Salim 1992cSulphadryl
Inactive powder
2XXXHigh
Schulze 2001aFoam
alginate
2Very high
Scurr 1994aHydrocolloid
Alginate
2Low/unclear
Senet 2003bBlood product
Hydrocolloid
1XXLow/unclear
Senet 2011bGrowth factor
Hydrogel
1XXHigh
Senet 2014asilver
foam
2High
Smith 1992aHydrocolloid
Povidone iodine
2Very high
Smith 1994aHydrocolloid
alginate
2Very high
Solovastru 2015cOzonated oil
Emollient cream
2XXXLow/unclear
Sopata 2016ahydrocolloid
foam
2Very high
Stacey 1997aPaste bandage
alginate
2High
Stacey 2000bBlood product
Saline gauze
1XXHigh
Steele 1986cStandard care
Cadexomer iodine
2XXXLow/unclear
Taddeucci 2004aNonadherent
Hydrogel
2Very high
Tarvainen 1988cCadexomer iodine
Dextranomer
2XXXVery high
Thomas 1997aFoam
Hydrocolloid
2Very high
Tumino 2008aSucralfate
Hydrogel
2High
Vanscheidt 2012aOctenidine
Foam
2XHigh
Vin 2002aPMM
nonadherent
2Low/unclear
Zuccarelli 1992aFoam
Hydrocolloid
2Low/unclear

Open in a separate window

Interventions

Included studies evaluated a wide range of dressings and topical treatments. A total of 20 different types of dressings were evaluated; this included dressings which were impregnated with agents such as ibuprofen, silver, povidone iodine or zinc oxide. Sixteen different topical treatments were included. Although the majority of trials compared two dressings or two topical treatments (and most of these compared two dressings), some compared a dressing with a topical treatment (e.g. a hydrocolloid dressing compared with silver sulfadiazine (SSD)). A minority of trials compared arms which included more than one treatment option and these included both dressings and topical treatments.

The number and types of Interventions are fully detailed in the effects of interventions section (Effects of interventions) and in supplementary tables (Table 3; Table 4; Table 5), which also show the status of each trial in the review and network analyses.

3

Direct comparisons for individual interventions compared with NMA results

Contrast/comparisonNumber of studies (participants)StudiesRR (95% CI) direct evidence. Random effects (inverse variance) Heterogeneity statisticsNMA results (extended base‐case; consistency assumption): RR (95% CI)
Comparisons with nonadherent: RR > 1 indicates greater proportion healing with specified alternative treatment
Alginate1 (113)Moffatt 1992b1.08 (0.86 to 1.36)1.21 (0.92 to 1.60)
Cadexomer iodine1 (105)Hansson 19981.00 (0.39 to 2.56)1.16 (0.50 to 2.69)
sketchup 2020 crack reddit rowspan="1" colspan="1">1 (71)Banerjee 19971.34 (0.61 to 2.92)1.34 (0.61 to 2.95)
Foam1 (124)Callam 19921.35 (0.89 to 2.05)1.15 (0.91 to 1.44)
Hyaluronic acid plus povidone iodine1 (55)Casoni 20021.93 (0.95 to 3.92)1.93 (0.94 to 3.96)
Hydrocolloid7 (662)Backhouse 1987; Blair 1988a; Hansson 1998; Leaper 1991; Meredith 1988; Moffatt 1992a; Nelson 20071.26 (0.92 to 1.72)
I² = 69%; P = 0.004
1.04 (0.85 to 1.29)
Hydrofibre1 (82)Kelechi 20121.47 (0.88 to 2.46)1.39 (0.93 to 2.08)
Hydrogel1 (24)Taddeucci 20042.00 (0.21 to 19.23)0.79 (0.39 to 1.62)
PMM1 (74)Vin 20021.42 (0.80 to 2.51)1.31 (0.93 to 1.84)
SSD1 (60)Blair 1988b0.79 (0.57 to 1.10)0.81 (0.57 to 1.15)
Growth factora3 (460)Robson 1995; Robson 2001; Robson 20040.96 (0.81 to 1.14)
I² = 0%; P = 0.65
0.95 (0.72 to 1.25)
Comparisons with alginate: RR > 1 indicates greater proportion healing with specified alternative treatment
Foam1 (113)Schulze 20010.55 (0.10 to 2.86)0.94 (0.72 to 1.23)
Hydrocolloid2 (80)Scurr 1994; Smith 19940.72 (0.15 to 3.42)
I² = 52%; P = 0.15
0.86 (0.68 to 1.11)
Hydrofibre2 (175)Armstrong 1997; Harding 20011.47 (0.48 to 4.47)
I² = 54%; P = 0.14
1.15 (0.77 to 1.72)
Paste bandage1 (133)Stacey 19971.22 (0.91 to 1.63)1.39 (1.01 to 1.90)
PMM2 (140)Petkov 1997; Romanelli 2015a1.10 (0.84 to 1.46)
I² = 0%; P = 0.87
1.08 (0.83 to 1.40)
Comparisons with cadexomer iodine: RR > 1 indicates greater proportion healing with specified alternative treatment
Hydrocolloid1 (104)Hansson 199800.73 (0.26 to 2.08)0.90 (0.39 to 2.10)
Gentian violet1 (60)Ormiston 19850.58 (0.27 1.28)0.58 (0.26 to 1.29)
Comparisons with foam: RR > 1 indicates greater proportion healing with specified alternative treatment
Hydrocolloid6 (458)Bowszyc 1995; Charles 2002; Norkus 2005; Sopata 2016; Thomas 1997; Zuccarelli 19920.92 (0.77 to 1.08)
I² = 0%; P = 0.84
0.91 (0.78 to 1.07)
Ibuprofen2 (242)Fogh 2012; Gottrup 20080.88 (0.48 to 1.61)
I² = 0%; P = 0.79
0.88 (0.48 to 1.62)
Octenidine1 (126)Vanscheidt 20121.03 (0.56 to 1.90)1.03 (0.55 to 1.92)
Paste bandage1 (36)Rubin 19902.30 (1.29 to 4.10)1.47 (0.99 to 2.17)
PMM1 (187)Meaume 20120.87 (0.30 to 2.48)1.14 (0.82 to 1.60)
PMM silver1 (30)Lanzara 20081.57 (0.84 to 2.92)1.15 (0.78 to 1.71)
Silver4 (397)Dimakakos 2009;Ivins 2006; Jørgensen 2005; Senet 20141.65 (1.08 to 2.52)
I² = 0%; P = 0.77
2.12 (1.46 to 3.07)
Comparisons with hyaluronic acid: RR > 1 indicates greater proportion healing with specified alternative treatment
Saline gauze1 (88)Humbert 20130.52 (0.23 to 1.17)0.57 (95% CI 0.28 to 1.14)
Emollient cream1 (101)Dereure 2012a1.31 (0.31 to 5.55)1.75 (0.87 to 3.52)
Comparisons with hydrocolloid: RR > 1 indicates greater proportion healing with specified alternative treatment
PMM silver1 (49)Hanft 20061.07 (0.69 to 1.67)1.27 (0.87 to 1.85)
Povidone iodine1 (200)Smith 19920.92 (0.69 to 1.23)0.92 (0.68 to 1.26)
Saline gauze1 (28)Ohlsson 19940.29 (0.07 to 1.14)0.34 (95% CI 0.15 to 0.8)
Silver1 (58)Kucharzewski 20134.39 (2.23 to 8.65)
Note Vmware Workstation Free Download events in silver arm
2.32 (1.58 to 3.41)
Zinc oxide1 (43)Brandrup 19900.95 (0.27 to 3.33)0.95 (0.27 to 3.35)
Blood producta1 (13)Senet 20030.86 (0.07 to 10.96)0.38 (95% CI 0.17 to 0.88)
Growth factora1 (29)Rasmussen 19911.83 (0.22 to 15.51)0.91 (0.71 to 1.17)
Comparisons withhydrogel: RR > 1 indicates greater proportion healing with specified alternative treatment
Sucralfate1 (100)Tumino 20088.60 (3.72 to 19.90)8.60 (3.68 to 20.07)
Blood producta1 (44)De Araujo 20160.47 (0.14 to 1.58)0.51 (CI 0.21 to 1.23)
Growth factora1 (59)Senet 20111.38 (0.64 to 3.01)1.20 (0.61 to 2.35)
Comparisons with blood product: RR > 1 indicates greater proportion healing with specified alternative treatment
Saline gauze1 (67)Stacey 20000.93 (0.74 to 1.16)0.89 (0.68 to 1.17)
Emollient cream1 (147)Biland 19850.76 [0.55, 1.06]0.79 (0.56 to 1.11)
Comparisons with emollient cream: RR > 1 indicates greater proportion healing with specified alternative treatment
SSD1 (57)Bishop 19926.21 (0.80 to 48.38)2.56 (1.01 to 6.53)

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4

Interventions in the included studies

Источник: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6513558/
  • Study on Corrosion-induced CrackInitiation and Propagation of Sustaining Loaded RCbeams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, X. P.; Li, Y.; Yuan, C. B.; Yang, Z.; Chen, Y.

    2018-05-01

    For 13 pieces of reinforced concrete beams with HRB500 steel bars under long-term sustained loads, at time of corrosion-induced initialcrack of concrete, and corrosion-induced crack widths of 0.3mm and 1mm, corrosion of steel bars and time-varying behavior of corrosion-induced crack width were studied by the ECWD (Electro-osmosis - constant Current – Wet and Dry cycles) accelerated corrosion method. The results show that when cover thickness was between 30 and 50mm,corrosion rates of steel bars were between 0.8% and 1.7% at time of corrosion-induced crack, and decreased with increasing concrete cover thickness; when corrosion-induced crack width was 0.3mm, the corrosion rate decreased with increasing steel bar diameter, and increased with increasing cover thickness; its corrosion rate varied between 0.98% and 4.54%; when corrosion-induced crack width reached 1mm, corrosion rate of steel bars was between 4% and 4.5%; when corrosion rate of steel bars was within 5%, the maximum and average corrosion-induced crack and corrosion rate of steel bars had a good linear relationship. The calculation model predicting the maximum and average width of corrosion-induced crack is given in this paper.

  • Mode I and mixed I/III crackinitiation and propagation behavior of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy at 25{degrees}C

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.X.; Kurtz, R.J.; Jones, R.H.

    1997-04-01

    The mode I and mixed-mode I/III fracture behavior of the production-scale heat (No. 832665) of V-4Cr-4Ti has been investigated at 25{degrees}C using compact tension (CT) specimens for Trapcode Particular 5.0.3 Crack - Free Activators mode I crack and modified CT specimens for a mixed-mode I/III crack. The mode III to mode I load ratio was 0.47. Test specimens were vacuum annealed at 1000{degrees}C for 1 h after final machining. Both mode I and mixed-mode I/III specimens were fatigue cracked prior to J-integral testing. It was noticed that the mixed-mode I/III crack angle decreased from an initial 25 degrees to approximately 23 degrees due to crack planemore » rotation during fatigue cracking. No crack plane rotation occurred in the mode I specimen. The crackinitiation and propagation behavior was evaluated by generating J-R curves. Due to the high ductility of this alloy and the limited specimen thickness (6.35 mm), plane strain requirements were not met so valid critical J-integral values were not obtained. However, it was found that the crackinitiation and propagation behavior was significantly different between the mode I and the mixed-mode I/III specimens. In the mode I specimen crackinitiation did not occur, only extensive crack tip blunting due to plastic deformation. During J-integral testing the mixed-mode crack rotated to an increased crack angle (in contrast to fatigue precracking) by crack blunting. When the crackinitiated, the crack angle was about 30 degrees. After crackinitiation the crack plane remained at 30 degrees until the test was completed. Mixed-mode crackinitiation was difficult, but propagation was easy. The fracture surface of the mixed-mode specimen was characterized by microvoid coalescence.« less

  • Location, location & size: defects close to surfaces dominate fatigue crackinitiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serrano-Munoz, Itziar; Buffiere, Jean-Yves; Mokso, Rajmund; Verdu, Catherine; Nadot, Yves

    2017-03-01

    Metallic cast components inevitably contain defects such as shrinkage cavities which are inherent to the solidification process. Those defects are known to significantly alter the fatigue life of components. Yet very little is known, quantitatively, on the dangerosity of internal casting defects compared to surface ones. In this study, fatigue specimens containing controlled internal defects (shrinkage pores) are used to foster internal cracking. In situ fatigue tests monitored by X ray synchrotron tomography revealed that the internal nucleation and propagation of cracks was systematically overran by surface crackinginitiated at castings defects up to ten times smaller than the internal ones. These findings indicate that the presence of internal defects in cast components can be tolerated to a larger extent than is allowed by nowadays standards

  • Location, location &size: defects close to surfaces dominate fatigue crackinitiation.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Munoz, Itziar; Buffiere, Jean-Yves; Mokso, Rajmund; Verdu, Catherine; Nadot, Yves

    2017-03-27

    Metallic cast components inevitably contain defects such as shrinkage cavities which are inherent to the solidification process. Those defects are known to significantly alter the fatigue life of components. Yet very little is known, quantitatively, on the dangerosity of internal casting defects compared to surface ones. In this study, fatigue specimens containing controlled internal defects (shrinkage pores) are used to foster internal cracking. In situ fatigue tests monitored by X ray synchrotron tomography revealed that the internal nucleation and propagation of cracks was systematically overran by surface crackinginitiated at castings defects up to ten times smaller than the internal ones. These findings indicate that the presence of internal defects in cast components can be tolerated to a larger extent than is allowed by nowadays standards.

  • Crystallographic Analysis of Fatigue CrackInitiation Behavior in Coarse-Grained Magnesium Alloy Under Tension-Tension Loading Cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamada, Kazuhiro; Kakiuchi, Toshifumi; Uematsu, Yoshihiko

    2017-07-01

    Plane bending fatigue tests are conducted to investigate fatigue crackinitiation mechanisms in coarse-grained magnesium alloy, AZ31, under the stress ratios R = -1 and 0.1. The initial crystallographic structures are analyzed by an electron backscatter diffraction method. The slip or twin operation during fatigue tests is identified from the line angle analyses based on Euler angles of the grains. Under the stress ratio R = -1, relatively thick tension twin bands are formed in coarse grains. Subsequently, compression twin or secondary pyramidal slip operates within the tension twin band, resulting in the fatigue crackinitiation. On the other hand, under R = 0.1 with tension-tension loading cycles, twin bands are formed on the specimen surface, but the angles of those bands do not correspond to tension twins. Misorientation analyses of c-axes in the matrix grain and twin band reveal that double twins are activated. Under R = 0.1, fatigue crackinitiates along the double twin boundaries. The different manners of fatigue crackinitiation at R = -1 and 0.1 are related to the asymmetricity of twining under tension and compression loadings. The fatigue strengths under different stress ratios cannot be estimated by the modified Goodman diagram due to the effect of stress ratio on crackinitiation mechanisms.

  • Fatigue crackinitiation and microcrack propagation in X7091 type aluminum P/M alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirose, S.; Fine, M. E.

    1983-06-01

    Fatigu crackinitiation in extruded X7091 RSP-P/M aluminum type alloys o°Curs at grain boundaries at both low and high stresses. By a process of elimination this grain boundary embrittlement was attributed to Al2O3 particles formed mainly during atomization and segregated to some grain boundaries. It is not due to the small grain size, to Co2Al9, to η precipitates at grain boundaries, nor to a precipitate free zone. Thermomechanical processing after extrusion of X7091 with 0.8 pct Co was done by Alcoa to produce large recrystallized grains. This resulted in initiation of fatigue cracks at slip bands, and the resistance to initiation of fatigue cracks at low stresses was much greater. Microcrack growth is, however, much faster in the thermomechanically treated samples, as well as in ingot alloys, than in extruded and aged X7091.

  • Location, location & size: defects close to surfaces dominate fatigue crackinitiation

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Munoz, Itziar; Buffiere, Jean-Yves; Mokso, Rajmund; Verdu, Catherine; Nadot, Yves

    2017-01-01

    Metallic cast components inevitably contain defects such as shrinkage cavities which are inherent to the solidification process. Those defects are known to significantly alter the fatigue life of components. Yet very little is known, quantitatively, on the dangerosity of internal casting defects compared to surface ones. In this study, fatigue specimens containing controlled internal defects (shrinkage pores) are used to foster internal cracking. In situ fatigue tests monitored by X ray synchrotron tomography revealed that the internal nucleation and propagation of cracks was systematically overran by surface crackinginitiated at castings defects up to ten times smaller than the internal ones. These findings indicate that the presence of internal defects in cast components can be tolerated to a larger extent than is allowed by nowadays standards PMID:28345599

  • Automatic quantification framework to detect cracks in teeth

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Hina; Hernandez, Pablo; Budin, Francois; Chittajallu, Deepak; Vimort, Jean-Baptiste; Walters, Rick; Mol, André; Khan, Asma; Paniagua, Beatriz

    2018-01-01

    Studies show that cracked teeth are the third most common cause for tooth loss in industrialized countries. If detected early and accurately, patients can retain their teeth for a longer time. Most cracks are not detected early because of the discontinuous symptoms and lack of good diagnostic tools. Currently used imaging modalities like Download DVDFab 11.0.3.6 Crack - Crack Key For U Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) and intraoral radiography often have low sensitivity and do not show cracks clearly. This paper introduces a novel method that can detect, quantify, and localize cracks automatically in high resolution CBCT (hr-CBCT) scans of teeth using steerable wavelets and learning methods. These initial results were created using UnHackMe v9.9 Latest Version - Crack Key For U scans of a set of healthy teeth and of teeth with simulated longitudinal cracks. The cracks were simulated using multiple orientations. The crack detection was trained on the most significant wavelet coefficients at each scale using a bagged classifier of Support Vector Machines. Our results show high discriminative specificity and sensitivity of this method. The framework aims to be automatic, reproducible, and open-source. Future work will focus on the clinical validation of the proposed techniques on different types of cracks ex-vivo. We believe that this work will ultimately lead to improved tracking and detection of cracks allowing for longer lasting healthy teeth. PMID:29769755

  • Influence of Initial Inclined Surface Crack on Estimated Residual Fatigue Lifetime of Railway Axle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Náhlík, Luboš; Pokorný, Pavel; Ševčík, Martin; Hutař, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    Railway axles are subjected to cyclic loading which can lead to fatigue failure. For safe operation of railway axles a damage tolerance approach taking into account a possible defect on railway axle surface is often required. The contribution deals with an estimation of residual fatigue lifetime of railway axle with initial inclined surface crack. 3D numerical model of inclined semi-elliptical surface crack in railway axle was developed and its curved propagation through the axle was simulated by finite element method. Presence of press-fitted wheel in the vicinity of initialcrack was taken into account. A typical loading spectrum of railway axle was considered and residual fatigue lifetime was estimated by NASGRO approach. Material properties of typical axle steel EA4T were considered in numerical calculations and lifetime estimation.

  • Microstructural examination of fatigue crack tip in high strength steel

    SciTech Connect

    Fukuoka, C.; Yoshizawa, H.; Nakagawa, Y.G.

    1993-10-01

    Fatigue tests were performed to examine how microstructural conditioning influences crackinitiation and propagation in SA508 class 3 low-carbon steel. A 3-mm-long crack was introduced in compact tension (CT) fatigue test specimens under four different loads in order to obtain crack tip plastic zones at different stress intensity factor ranges, [Delta]K = 18, 36, 54, and 72 MPa[radical]m. The microstructure of the plastic zones around the crack tip were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) 1click dvd copy pro activation code - Activators Patch selected area electron diffraction (SAD). Micro-orientation of the dislocation cells in the plastic zones of all of the CT samples increased to 4 degmore » from the level of an as-received sample. Four-point bending fatigue tests were performed for plate shape samples with a large cyclic strain range. The SAD value of the bending samples was also 4 deg in the damaged area where cracks already initiated at an early stage of the fatigue process. These test results indicate that the microstructural conditioning is a prerequisite for the fatigue crackinitiation and propagation in SA508. These observations may lead to better understanding of how fatigue initiation processes transit to cracks.« less

  • The Influence on Microstructure and Microtexture on Fatigue CrackInitiation and Growth in Alpha + Beta Titanium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    crack growth, microstructure, EBSD, fractography 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT: SAR NUMBER OF PAGES 6 19a.differences in thermomechanical processing routes have been correlated with variations in fatigue life through the use of quantitative fractography .Keywords: fatigue, crackinitiation, crack growth, microstructure, EBSD, fractography 1. Introduction Two-phase titanium alloys have the unique

  • Thermo-mechanical simulations of early-age concrete cracking with durability predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Havlásek, Petr; Šmilauer, Vít; Hájková, Karolina; Baquerizo, Luis

    2017-09-01

    Concrete performance is strongly affected by mix design, thermal boundary conditions, its evolving mechanical properties, and internal/external restraints with consequences to possible cracking with impaired durability. Thermo-mechanical simulations are able to capture those relevant phenomena and boundary conditions for predicting temperature, strains, stresses or cracking in reinforced concrete structures. In this paper, xmind free vs pro - Free Activators propose a weakly coupled thermo-mechanical model for early age concrete with an affinity-based hydration model for thermal part, taking into account concrete mix design, cement type and thermal boundary conditions. The mechanical part uses B3/B4 model for concrete creep and shrinkage with isotropic damage model for cracking, able to predict a crack width. All models have been implemented in an open-source OOFEM software package. Validations of thermo-mechanical simulations will be presented on several massive concrete structures, showing excellent temperature predictions. Likewise, strain validation demonstrates good predictions on a restrained reinforced concrete wall and concrete beam. Durability predictions stem from induction time of reinforcement corrosion, caused by carbonation and/or chloride ingress influenced by crack width. Reinforcement corrosion in concrete struts of a bridge will serve for validation.

  • Precursor Evolution and Stress Corrosion CrackingInitiation of Cold-Worked Alloy 690 in Simulated Pressurized Water Reactor Primary Water

    SciTech Connect

    Zhai, Ziqing; Toloczko, Mychailo; Kruska, Karen

    Stress corrosion crackinitiation of two thermally-treated, cold-worked (CW) alloy 690 (UNS N06690) materials was investigated in 360oC simulated PWR primary water using constant load tensile (CLT) tests and blunt notch compact tension (BNCT) tests equipped with direct current potential drop (DCPD) for in-situ detection of cracking. SCC initiation was not detected by DCPD for either Actual Window Minimizer Licenses key 21% or 31%CW CLT specimens loaded at their yield stress after ~9,220 hours, however intergranular (IG) precursor damage and isolated surface cracks were observed on the specimens. The two 31%CW BNCT specimens loaded at moderate stress intensity after several cyclic loading ramps showedmore » DCPD-indicated crackinitiation after 10,400 hours of exposure at constant stress intensity, which was resulted from significant growth of IG cracks. The 21%CW BNCT specimens only exhibited isolated small IG surface cracks and showed no apparent DCPD change throughout the test. Post-test cross-section examinations revealed many grain boundary (GB) nano-cavities in the bulk of all the CLT and BNCT specimens particularly for the 31%CW materials. Cavities were also found along GBs extending to the surface suggesting an important role in crack nucleation. This paper provides an overview of the evolution of GB cavities and discusses their effects on crackinitiation in CW alloy 690.« less

  • Investigation into the Fatigue CrackInitiation Process in Metals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    fatigue crackinitiation in metals under spectrum loading is described. The work focuses on the microplastic deformation properties of a surface.behavior is then controlled by the external load spectra, but is greatly influenced by the reaction stresses within a microplastic grain generated when its.49 4.7 Example values of strain just outside microplastic grains indicating an elastic matrix and deformation depths around 10 n - the typical

  • Analysis of delamination in cross ply laminates initiating from impact induced matrix cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salpekar, S. A.

    1991-01-01

    Several two dimensional finite element analyses of (0 sub 2/90 sub 8/0 sub 2) glass/epoxy and graphite-epoxy composite laminates were performed to study some of the characteristics of damage development due to an impact load. A cross section through the thickness of the laminate with EF Commander 19.05 patch - Crack Key For U ends, and carrying a transverse load in the center was analyzed. Inclined matrix cracks such as those produced by low velocity impact were modeled in the 90 deg ply group. The introduction of the matrix cracks caused large interlaminar tension and shear stresses in the vicinity of both crack tips in the 0/90 and 90/0 interfaces. The large interlaminar stresses at the ends of the matrix cracks indicate that matrix cracking may give rise to delamination. The ratio of mode I to total strain energy release rate at the beginning of delamination calculated at the two matrix crack tips was 60 and 28 pct., respectively, in the glass/epoxy laminate. The corresponding ratio was 97 and 77 pct. in the graphite-epoxy laminate. Thus, a significant mode I component of strain energy release rate may be present at the delamination initiation due to an impact load.

  • An initial investigation of the sub-microsecond features of dynamic crack propagation in PMMA and the RDX-based explosive PBX 9205

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washabaugh, Peter; Hill, Larry

    2007-06-01

    A dynamic crack propagating in a brittle material releases enough thermal energy to produce visible light. The dynamic fracture of even macroscopically amorphous materials becomes unsteady as the crack propagation velocity approaches the material wave-speeds. The heat generated at a crack-tip, especially as it jumps, may be a mechanism to initiate a self-sustaining reaction in an energetic material. Experiments were conducted in specimens to simulate an infinite plate for 20 μs. The initial specimens were 152 mm square by 6 mm thick acrylic sheets, and were fabricated to study non-steady near-wave-speed crack propagation. A variant of this specimen embedded a 25 mm x 3 mm PBX 9205 pellet to explore the influence of dynamic Mode-I cracks in these materials. The crack was initiated by up to 0.2 g of Detasheet placed along glasswire 2.1.167 crack - Free Activators precursor 50 mm long notch, with a shield to contain the reaction products and prevent propagation along the fractured surfaces. The crack was studied by means of a streak camera and a Fourier-filter of the light reflecting off the newly minted surfaces. The sub-microsecond behavior of holes initiating, preceding and coalescing with the main crack were observed in the PMMA samples. The embedding and mechanical loading of explosives by this technique did not initiate a self-sustaining reaction in preliminary testing.

  • Analysis of delamination in cross-ply laminates initiating from impact induced matrix cracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salpekar, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    Two-dimensional finite element analyses of (02/90(8)/02) glass/epoxy and graphite/epoxy composite laminates were performed to investigate some of the characteristics of damage development due to an impact load. A cross section through the thickness of the laminate with fixed ends, and carrying a transverse load in the center, was analyzed. Inclined matrix cracks, such as those produced by a low-velocity impact, were modeled in the 90 deg ply group. The introduction of the matrix cracks caused large interlaminar tensile and shear stresses in the vicinity of both crack tips in the 0/90 and 90/0 interfaces, indicating that matrix cracking may give rise to delamination. The ratio of Mode I to total strain energy release rate, G(I)/G(total), at the beginning of delamination, calculated at the two (top and bottom) matrix crack tips was 60 and 28 percent, respectively, in the glass/epoxy laminate. The corresponding ratio was 97 and 77 percent in the graphite/epoxy laminate. Thus, a significant Mode I component of strain energy release rate may be present at the delamination initiation due to an impact load. The value of strain energy release rate at either crack tip increased due to an increase in the delamination length at the other crack tip and may give rise to an unstable delamination growth under constant load.

  • Investigation of Helicopter Longeron Cracks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, John A.; Baughman, James; Wallace, Terryl A.

    2009-01-01

    Four cracked longerons, containing a total of eight cracks, were provided for study. Cracked regions were cut from the longerons. Load was applied to open the cracks, enabling crack surface examination. Examination revealed that crack propagation was driven by fatigue loading in all eight cases. Fatigue crackinitiation appears to have occurred on the top edge of the longerons near geometric changes that affect component bending stiffness. Additionally, metallurgical analysis has revealed a local depletion in alloying elements in the crackinitiation regions that may be a contributing factor. Fatigue crack propagation appeared to be initially driven by opening-mode loading, but at a crack length of approximately 0.5 inches (12.7 mm), there is evidence of mixed-mode crack loading. For the longest cracks studied, shear-mode displacements destroyed crack-surface features of interest over significant portions of the crack surfaces.

  • Estimation of CrackInitiation and Propagation Thresholds of Confined Brittle Coal Specimens Based on Energy Dissipation Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Jianguo; Wang, Jun; Jiang, Jinquan; Hu, Shanchao; Jiang, Lishuai; Liu, Xuesheng

    2018-01-01

    A new energy-dissipation method to identify crackinitiation and propagation thresholds is introduced. Conventional and cyclic loading-unloading triaxial compression tests and acoustic emission experiments were performed for coal specimens from a 980-m deep mine with different confining pressures of 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, and 35 MPa. Stress-strain relations, acoustic emission patterns, and energy evolution characteristics obtained during the triaxial compression tests were analyzed. The majority of the input energy stored in the coal specimens took the form of elastic strain energy. After the elastic-deformation stage, part of the input energy was consumed by stable crack propagation. However, with an increase in stress levels, unstable crack propagation commenced, and the energy dissipation and coal damage were accelerated. The variation in the pre-peak energy-dissipation ratio was consistent with the coal damage. This new method demonstrates that the crackinitiation threshold was proportional to the peak stress ( σ p) for ratios that ranged from 0.4351 to 0.4753 σ p, and the crack damage threshold ranged from 0.8087 to driver booster 6.4 key - Activators Patch σ p.

  • Origins of Negative Strain Rate Dependence of Stress Corrosion CrackingInitiation in Alloy 690, and Intergranular Crack Formation in Thermally Treated Alloy 690

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Young Suk; Kim, Sung Soo

    2016-09-01

    We show that enhanced stress corrosion cracking (SCC) initiation in cold-rolled Alloy 690 with decreasing strain rate is related to the rate of short-range ordering (SRO) but not to the time-dependent corrosion process. Evidence for SRO is provided by aging tests on cold-rolled Alloy 690 at 623 K and 693 K (350 °C and 420 °C), respectively, which demonstrate its enhanced lattice contraction and hardness increase with aging temperature and time, respectively. Secondary intergranular cracks formed only in thermally treated and cold-rolled Alloy 690 during SCC tests, which are not SCC cracks, are caused by its lattice contraction by SRO before SCC tests but not by the orientation effect.

  • Источник: https://www.science.gov/topicpages/e/early+crack+initiation
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