Honeycam 3.07 Crack Serial Key  - Free Activators

product of a long evolutionary process stemming from initial studies (e.g., light number one represents engine number one in a free-return. Submit curing compound product data and verification of its compatibility washed rounded stones free of deleterious reactivity to cement with graded. Forms shall be cleaned and free of any residue or elements deleterious to the final product. Forms shall be wetted prior to placement of.

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A Comprehensive Review on Recent Advances in Two-Dimensional (2D) Hexagonal Boron Nitride

Abstract Image

Two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride (2D-hBN) is an emerging 2D material that has received considerable attention due to its exceptional properties including electric insulation, low dielectric constant, easy synthesis, high-temperature stability, corrosion resistance, and chemical stability. 2D-hBN can be integrated with other 2D materials such as graphene in the next generation of electronic and optoelectronic devices and van der Waals heterostructures. In this review, unique properties of the 2D-hBN are discussed, and recent advancements in the synthesis methods such as mechanical exfoliation, liquid exfoliation, ion intercalation, chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, ion sputtering deposition, and some more techniques are reviewed. Furthermore, versatile applications of 2D-hBN nanosheets in graphene electronics, tunneling barrier, dielectrics, passivation layers, deep ultraviolet light sources, single-photon emitters, sensors, and catalysis are critically analyzed. Current challenges and future perspectives for the utilization of 2D-hBN in the next-generation ultrathin electronic devices are discussed.

Источник: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsaelm.1c00720

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Источник: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6182519/

ICA2010: 20th International Congress on Acoustics, ICA 2010
Venue, Location, Date

Table of Contents

    • 10 General acoustics, education
    • 101ss Education
    • 20 General linear acoustics
    • 25 Nonlinear acoustics
    • 28 Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound
    • 30 Underwater sound
    • 3001ss Underwater sound transducers
    • 3002ss Underwater sound propagation
    • 3003ss Underwater sound effect on marine life
    • 35 Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound
    • 3501ss Sonoprocessing
    • 3502ss Sonochemistry and Sonoluminescence
    • 3503ss Bubbles on biomedical and industrial surfaces
    • 3504ss Geophysical and engineering bubble acoustics
    • 3505ss Medical bubble acoustics
    • 3506ss High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) and its application in medicine
    • 3507ss Micro/Nanofluidics and Actuation
    • 3508ss Thermoacoustics
    • 3509ss Non-medical Imaging and Ultrasonic Measurement Techniques
    • 3510ss Mack Breazeale Memorial Session
    • 38 Measurement, Generation and reproduction of sound
    • 40 Structural acoustics and vibration
    • 4001ss Theoretical and computational acoustics
    • 50 Noise: its effects and control
    • 5001ss Environmental Noise Management
    • 5003ss Road transportation noise
    • 5004ss Aircraft noise
    • 5005ss Wind farm noise
    • 5008ss Health effects of noise
    • 5010ss Occupational noise
    • 5011ss Vehicle noise and vibration
    • 5012ss Rail transport noise and vibration
    • 5015ss Military Noise
    • 55 Architectural acoustics
      • Acoustic study of the Society of Jesus Church. Characterization by means of objective and subjective parameters
      • Using an ambisonic microphone for measurement of the diffuse state in a reverberant room
      • A new system of speech privacy criteria in terms of Speech Privacy Class (SPC) values
      • Sound propagation in performance halls with balconies
      • Taiwan green building material labelling system and its sound insulating assessment
      • Investigating room acoustics using higher order ambisonics and perceptual evaluation of ambisonic auralization techniques
      • Improving the acoustic for classical musicians
      • Acoustical effects of columns, beams and furniture on sound fields in small enclosures
      • The acoustics of ancient Iranian music room at "Aali Ghapoo"
      • Acoustical measurements in occupied rooms in Paris
      • Optimal design of slit resonators for acoustic normal mode control in rectangular rooms
      • A review of the current role of acoustics in sustainability: The contrast of different rating tools, codes and standards
      • Measurement and optimization of background noise and reverberation for a meeting room
      • Phase coherence as a measure of acoustic quality: Part 1, The neural mechanism
      • Phase coherence as a measure of acoustic quality: Part 2, Audience engagement
      • Phase coherence as a measure of acoustic quality: Part 3, Concert hall design
      • The Lindeman Hall of Oslo ― Evidence of low-frequency radiation from the stage floor
      • Restoration of the Bell Pavilion for King Song-Dok Bell considering its acoustic characteristics
      • An acoustic investigation into small auditorium in Indonesia
      • Architectural categories and acoustic characteristics of traditional Chinese theatres
      • A new miniature loudspeaker for room acoustical scale model experiment
      • Quantitative evaluation of three-dimensional shape of auditorium using elliptic Fourier descriptors
      • Effects of stage design elements on acoustics of concert halls
      • Effects of sound strength and IACC on perception of listener envelopment in concert halls
      • Simulation of the aperture diffraction in coupled rooms by acoustical radiosity
      • Study on effect of room acoustics on timbral brightness of clarinet tones. Part I: subjective evaluation through a listening experiment
      • Effect of sound absorption on indoor sound environment of nursery school classrooms
      • Evaluation of stage support for musician's performance in a concert hall
      • Acoustics of the concert hall at the Sydney Opera House, Part two: The Acoustician's Perspective
      • A new type of porous absorber
      • Room acoustics in rehearsal rooms and public areas in the new Norwegian National Opera House
      • A study of sound absorption characteristics on air layer with irregular shape
      • The optimum initial delay time of Angklung Musics in an Angklung concert hall
      • A coherent image source method for flat waveguides with locally reacting boundaries
      • Numerical investigation on the sound absorption coefficients of Malaysian wood
      • Acoustic description of the Great Hall of the Moscow P.I.Tchaikovsky Conservatory
      • A proposal for a tool for automatic correction of geometrical errors in acoustical simulation
      • Effect of microperforation on sound insulation of double-leaf structures
      • Predictions of road traffic noise on residential balconies using a specular & diffusion model
      • Acoustical characteristics of newly developed perforated plates
      • Study on an estimation method for parameters of a dry laminated panel
      • Sound environmental design in nursery institutions focused on floor material
      • Control of sound insulation in glass facades at Oslo's Opera House
      • Designing small music practice rooms for sound quality
      • Contoured foam absorbers
      • Teatro di San Carlo, Naples, restoration and enlargement: Conservation of the excellent acoustics in the oldest active opera house in Europe
      • Sound absorption characterisation of woven materials. Case study: auditorium restoration
      • Optimal architectural configurations and acoustic parameters for multiple sources.
      • Examining the relationships between monaural and binaural classroom acoustics parameters and student achievement
      • Green rating systems and classroom acoustic design
      • Integrated lighting luminaire-acoustics diffusor for classroom
      • Comparison between measured and simulated binaural impulse responses in different rooms
      • Study on wooden micro-perforated panel and its application
      • Reverberation time - The mother of all room acoustical parameters
      • Room acoustical parameter values at the listener's ears - can preferred concert hall acoustics be predicted and explained?
      • Effects of the sound source direction on acoustical parameters in a church
      • Evaluation of a hard-walled rectangular room model with planar absorption cavities
      • Acoustical design of inner galleries in Heydar Aliyev Center
      • Basic study on acoustic wave analysis by the multi-moment method using interpolation by a high-order polynomial
      • Acoustic characterization of sacred music rendered by a human whistle at the Divine Providence Church in Goa, India
      • Acoustics of the concert hall at the Sydney Opera House, Part one: A Client's Perspective
      • Reflection of sound by concave surfaces
      • Effect of experimental design on the results of clarity-index just-noticeable-difference listening tests
      • A numerical investigation of the sound intensity field in rooms by using diffusion theory and particle tracing
      • Error and uncertainty of IACC measurements introduced by dummy head orientation using Monte Carlo simulations
      • Characterization of non-exponential sound energy decays in multiple coupled volumes
      • Reverberation times prediction on classroom using neural network model
    • 5501ss Sound transmission in lightweight structures
    • 58 Acoustical measurements and instrumentation
    • 60 Acoustic signal processing
    • 64 Physiological acoustics
    • 6401ss Hearing Rehabilitation
    • 66 Psychological acoustics
    • 6601ss Psychoacoustics from ecological viewpoints
    • 6603ss Soundscapes
    • 6605ss Virtual Sound/Displays
    • 70 Speech production
    • 71 Speech perception
    • 7101ss Acquisition of Speech Perception Skills
    • 72 Speech processing and communication systems
    • 75 Music and musical instruments
    • 80 Bioacoustics
    • 8001 Animal Bioacoustics
    • 8002 Medical Bioacoustics
    • Plenary Dist Special

All rights reserved. Permission is granted for any person to reproduce a part of any abstract provided that the permission is obtained from the author(s) and credit is given to the author(s) and these conference proceedings.


Support Mathematics Summer Schools for acoustics researcher training

Attenborough, Keith

Department of Design, Development, Environment and Materials, The Open University, UK

ABSTRACT
Mathematical methods are important for research in many aspects of acoustics. Currently, fundamental mathematical methodologies taught at undergraduate level are often advanced through independent learning by individual researchers. They develop their mathematical skills as appropriate rather than being made aware of the potential of advanced mathematical tools at the onset of their research career. Furthermore, most researchers in acoustics do not have access to master level courses to broaden their postgraduate study. Attempts to remedy this in the UK were made through summer schools held in 2003, 2005 and 2007 at Southampton and Salford Universities in the UK. The content and timetable planning, recruitment and student feedback from these Schools are reported together with general conclusions about their performance.

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The delivery of noise and vibration study material and real life practice

Groothoff, Beno

Environmental Directions, Brisbane, Australia

ABSTRACT
Presenting workshops, lectures and seminars on noise and vibration over the last 20 years has given the author an insight into the effectiveness of the ‘taking on board and putting into practice' of the material studied by the participants. It has also demonstrated the need for constantly updating the study material to keep the presented material relevant and meaningful for the changing audiences. The inclusion of case studies enhances students' involvement and problem solving skills. The advancement of computer technology has made it possible to make the presentations more realistic by incorporating case studies by using audio and video of noise and its effects into power point presentations to which students and other participants can relate. Despite these advancements in study material delivery, in real life basic mistakes, which should not happen, are being observed regularly when it comes to noise assessment. This is particularly true with the use of noise dose meters and, to a lesser extent, the use of sound level meters. Basic mistakes include for noise dose meters the setting-up, attachment and removal of the instrument and for sound level meters not recording where the measurement was made and not obtaining additional information e.g. about the activities and exposure duration.

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Problem based learning in acoustics at Aalborg University

Hammershøi, Dorte , Ordoñez, Rodrigo , Christensen, Flemming , Nielsen, Sofus Birkedal

Acoustics, Aalborg University, Denmark

ABSTRACT
The master program in Acoustics (M. Sc.) from Aalborg University is taught at the Department of Electronic system. The M. Sc. program consists of three semesters with course units and problem based project work organized in groups, and a final semester for a master thesis. During the first three semesters, the learning objectives are distributed between courses with independent examination, and a semester project. Each semester has a theme the projects must comply with. Either supervisors, students or industry propose the problem that become the basis for the project work. Under supervision, the students narrow down the problem, address possible solutions, and typically implement one or more of the options for further evaluation. The courses supplement the project work by adding specific and general knowledge of the subject areas of each semester. The courses either have direct application in the project work, or are defining for the candidate’s professional profile. This presentation gives an overview of Problem Based Learning organized in groups in the M. Sc. in Acoustics program of Aalborg University. Examples of projects and course activities are presented to illustrate the relation and interaction between course and project work.

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A viscoelastic figure model of tongue for understanding speech articulation

Hirayama, Makoto J.

Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa, Japan

ABSTRACT
Speech is a physiological signal which is generated by muscular motions of lung, vocal cords, larynx, jaw, tongue, and lips. Coordinated articulatory movements of these organs are so complex that they are difficult to be understood by either students or professionals. Especially for tongue, anatomical structures and functions are well studied but speech articulatory movements can be said that they are still under investigations.

To help understanding tongue shape and motions, I made a figure model of tongue using viscoelastic material of urethane rubber gel in the following procedure. At first, a cast of tongue is formed by baking clay which is hardened by heating. The shape of tongue is decided with multiple references of anatomy books, MRI images, educational models, and our real tongues. Next, I made a mold with silicon. Then, I molded and duplicated the figure model with urethane rubber gel. The model includes internal and external tongue muscles, although the current version is made as a whole shape model of tongue body consisting of combined muscles.

Compared to the current materials used in speech science education, such as drawings, pictures, videos, or human body models, the proposed tongue figure model is useful for understanding three dimensional tongue shape and internal and external tongue muscles' positions and motions, too. Because students can hold and touch the realistic tongue model and make it move and deform by pushing and pulling this viscoelastic tongue body. Pictures and explanatory texts do not make sense but the proposed model can help for students to understand anatomical structures and functions of speech articulation intuitively. From questionnaires from students in a speech science seminar, it is founded that the proposed model is an effective tool for understanding speech articulation. It can be applied not only to teach speech science, but also to elucidate speech articulation by scientists and engineers, and also to develop a tongue actuator for speaking robots.

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Case study of curriculum development for technical listening training for employees of an acoustic related company

Kawahara, Kazuhiko (1) , Ito, Toshihiro (2) , Kobayashi, Tetsu (3) , Iwamiya, Shin-ichiro (1) , Takada, Masayuki (1)

(1) Faculty of Design, Kyushu University, Japan (2) Yamaha Corporation, Japan (3) Yamaha Business Support Corporation, Japan

ABSTRACT
This is a case study of curriculum development for technical listening training. Technical listening training is a systematic education program designed to allow prospective acoustic engineers and sound designers to enhance their auditory sensitivity. Authors established a training strategy in an acoustics related company; Yamaha Corporation. We re-organized existing, and developed new, curricula for a training suite for company employees. Discrimination, level difference identification and frequency identification training were classified as 'beginners training'. Identification of reverberation time and some application specific training were classified for 'expert training'. The company successfully conducted 9 days of training for freshman engineers. Trainee learning curves showed auditory sensitivity was improved.

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EAA Summer Schools

Maffei, L. (1) , Vorländer, Michael (2) , Svensson, P. (3) , Jambrosic, K. (4)

(1) 2nd University of Naples, Italy (2) RWTH Aachen University, Germany (3) NTNU Trondheim, Norway (4) University of Zagreb, Croatia

ABSTRACT
EAA Summer Schools are an integral part of the Young Acousticians Programme in the European Acoustics Association. They consist of various courses on advanced level, taught by internationally recognized and distinguished experts in Acoustics, and they are integrated into a European regional conference. Furthermore, structured sessions of the conference are related to the summer school courses, thus connecting basic lectures to keynotes and other invited papers on advanced topics. Those sessions are co-chaired one experienced expert and one young acoustician, typically a doctoral student. The first EAA Summer School will be held in Ljubljana, Slovenia, with short courses on Soundscapes, Voice and Musical Acoustics, Building Acoustics, Hydroacoustics, Numerical Methods, Psychoacoustics and Ultrasound. In the presentation we will illustrate the background and the motivation of this initiative. Content, organization and future plans of integration in the European higher education in acoustics will be discussed.

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Integral curriculum on noise control in Spain: a cooperative task

Romeu, J. , Genesca, M. , Pamies, T.

Acoustical and Mechanical Engineering Laboratory (LEAM), Technical University of Catalonia, Spain

ABSTRACT
Since the European Directive on Environmental Noise 2002/49 came into effect requiring strategic agglomeration and infrastructure noise maps to be made, the demand on environmental acoustics knowledge has been boosted in Spain. Currently several groups and companies are available to carry out noise surveys and pointing out the noise causes in different streets or areas of a city. However, a second stage is starting now: once the noise causes are identified, control noise techniques needs to be applied. This fact is supported in the Spanish adaptation of this regulation known as Ley del Ruido (2003) that states that noise control techniques should be applied to minimize the acoustic emission of municipal work activities, municipal devices, infrastructures, road workThis means that a demand on noise control knowledge is arising. This knowledge is scarcely provided in the bachelor degrees currently available in Spain, but there are some master degrees focussed in acoustics. However, it is difficult to find an institution that can cover all the topics needed for a complete Acoustics curriculum. This work analyses the feasibility of creating an integral curriculum in noise control involving different Spanish research groups in order to take benefit of the expertise of each one to cover the legal and industrial needs of Acoustics knowledge. In that way, the teaching effort would be optimized and the appropriate facilities would be available, however funds would be necessary for the mobility of teachers and students.

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Distance learning program for professional career in acoustics

Stead, Matthew (1) , Burgess, Marion (2)

(1) AECOM, Adelaide, SA, Australia (2) Acoustics and Vibration Unit, UNSW@ADFA, Canberra, Australia

ABSTRACT
Acoustical consulting companies frequently face the need to employ staff but find that, while there may be very good applicants with engineering and science backgrounds there are few that have any experience in acoustics. Larger consultancies can provide 'in-house' training but this is a strain on resources and smaller consultancies do not have this capacity. Any course available via the formal university system may not be available at a suitable time or location. A flexible distance learning program of study, based on the UK Institute of Acoustics Diploma, has been developed as a short course and managed via the university. A key feature of this program is that there is no need for the registrants to attend any central location at any time during the program. The early experiences with implementing the program have been influenced by the continued interest and support from the senior, experienced acoustical consultants. In this paper we will discuss the structure and experiences in the implementation of this fully flexible distance learning program.

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Identification, classification and acquisition of sounds for spatial orientation and mobility training of blind and visually impaired persons

Tomaszewski, Franciszek (1) , Czechyra, Bartosz (1) , Skrodzka, Ewa (2)

(1) Institute of Combustion Engines and Transportation, Division of Rail Vehicles, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan, Poland (2) Institute of Acoustics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland

ABSTRACT
Teaching and training of spatial orientation and mobility (SOM) is an important element of their education. Despite progress in supporting equipment technology and study on spatial orientation, blind people use still old, not always effective methods. Therefore, a method of SOM training based on environmental sounds may be a huge step in "opening" a surrounding world for them. The method will be a supplement, not a substitution, of a popular orientation method based on a white cane. A basic tool for the method is ‘a library of sound events and vibrations'. In the library both vibration and acoustic signals, which may be helpful or disturbing for SOM are collected as well as specific sounds of places and objects, which are often visited by persons with disabilities of sight. In the first step an identification of necessary signals was done, i.e. a questionnaire about various aspects of signals helping/disturbing spatial orientation was administered to blind and visually impaired. In the next step potential signals for recording were classified according to estimated level of teaching. Next, signals were recorded using artificial head or in-the-ear microphones at the attitude of 1.6 m and 0.9 m. A survey of collected signals and their classification will be presented.

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Workshop on advanced room acoustic prediction modelling

Wenmaekers, R. H. C. (1) , van Hout, N. H. A. M. (1) , van Luxemburg, L. C. J. (1) , Rindel, J. H. (2)

(1) Level Acoustics, Eindhoven, The Netherlands (2) Odeon, Lyngby, Denmark

ABSTRACT
The use of acoustic 3D modelling software has become increasingly popular among acousticians. Some software developers offer introduction courses for starting users. However, there is a need for more advanced courses for experienced modellers. Such a course should not only consist of lectures with the scientific background of the model, but should also give room for sharing practical experience so one can learn from one another. In this context a master class on room acoustic prediction modelling has taken place in January 2010. A significant part of this master class consisted of a modelling workshop. By working on an assignment in small groups participants were stimulated to discuss ideas and exchange knowledge.

The workshop was divided into four different parts, each part carefully tuned to the theoretical lectures in between. The workshop assignment was to compare predicted room acoustical parameters with measurement results concerning reverberation and speech intelligibility in an open plan office. Also an auralisation had to be made using multiple sound sources. The open plan office of the Laboratorium voor Akoestiek of Eindhoven University of Technology where the workshop took place served as an interesting modelling object. This room was interesting for educational reasons, since the participants were inside the room, as well as for acoustical reasons, because it consists of two coupled volumes, many details like furniture and a wide range of different materials.

In this paper the assignment will be elucidated and the results will be presented. The response of the participants and the experience of the master showed that a workshop is an indispensible part of master classes in the field of room acoustics.

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Acoustic education: Experiments for off-campus teaching and learning

Wild, Graham , Swan, Geoff

School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia

ABSTRACT
In undergraduate Physics and Engineering courses on acoustics, experiments typically involve the use of a Digital Storage Oscilloscope (DSO) and a Function Generator (FG). These relatively expensive and bulky pieces of bench top equipment make it prohibitive for external, distance, or off-campus students to be involved in experimental work, without attending a residential school. However, there is a growing demand, particularly from the Engineering sector, for courses to be more available remotely. To that end, Edith Cowan University is investigating the possibility of remote laboratory programs, which can be completed by off-campus students to ensure their Applied Physics or Engineering knowledge, is balanced by experimental experience. In this work, we show the implementation of a computer based DSO and FG, using the computers sound card. Here the PCs microphone jack is used as the DSO input, and the speaker jack is used as the FG output. In an effort to reduce the cost of implementing the experiment, we examine software available for free online. A small number of applications were compared in terms of their interface and func-tionality, for both the DSO and FG. The software system was then used to conduct a number of acoustics experiments relevant to undergraduate Physics and Engineering. These experiments include, the Physics of Music, Standing Waves in Pipes, and the Properties of Sound Waves. There are two primary benefits to the computer based system developed. The first is in terms of the enhancement to learning by students at the undergraduate level, where the knowledge learnt by off-campus students can be significantly improved with the use of practical experimental work. Secondly, remote experiments could provide additional components of laboratory work for students in on-campus subjects where resource issues are making traditional and comprehensive supervised laboratory programs hard to maintain.

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Left-handed elastic shear and longitudinal elastic waves in 2D phononic crystals made of a solid matrix

Croënne, Charles (1,3) , Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine (1,3) , Vasseur, Jérôme (1,3) , Bavencoffe, Maxime (1,2,3) , Tinel, Alain (2,3) , Morvan, Bruno (2,3) , Dubus, Bertrand (1,3)

(1) IEMN dpt ISEN, UMR CNRS 8520, Lille, France (2) LOMC, FRE CNRS 3102, Le Havre, France (3) FANO, FR CNRS 3110, France

ABSTRACT
Waves propagating in left-handed materials have unusual properties such as phase and group velocities of opposite signs and negative refraction index. Periodic lattices have been shown to exhibit such properties both for electromagnetic (photonic crystals) and in-fluid acoustic (phononic crystals) waves. This work addresses the question of the existence of left handed elastic waves in phononic crystals. Two-dimensional phononic crystals made of square lattices of cylindrical cavities or inclusions in a solid matrix are considered. Dispersion curves are computed using plane wave expansion method for real wave vectors in the Brillouin zone and finite element method for complex wavenumbers along a specific propagation direction. From these results, the existence and symmetry of the left-handed propagation mode in the phononic crystal is discussed and its relationship with lattice geometry and constitutive materials is analyzed.

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Diffraction of bulk waves on phononic crystals

Herbison, Sarah W. (1) , Declercq, Nico F. (1) , Moiseyenko, Rayisa (1,2) , Laude, Vincent (2)

(1) UMI Georgia Tech, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Metz-Technopole, France (2) Institut FEMTO-ST, Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon, France

ABSTRACT
Phononic crystals have attracted much research interest in the last decade due to their unique properties (band gaps, etc.) and potential applications in acoustic filtering and novel transducer design, among others. Many studies have examined the acoustic wave propagation that occurs inside (infinite) phononic crystals. However, in order for phononic crystals to find application in actual devices, they must be of finite size and the diffraction that may occur on the surface of the crystal becomes important. This work presents the results of experiments performed on a 2D phononic crystal consisting of steel cylinders in a water matrix. The diffraction of bulk waves that occurs on the exterior surface of the crystal will be examined, and the surface of the crystal will be shown to function as an acoustic diffraction grating. In addition, angular scans of the diffracted fields will examine the possibility of surface wave generation along the exterior surface of the crystal. It is expected that these results will contribute to a better understanding of finite-size phononic crystals and aid in the development of devices employing such crystals.

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Composite square and monomial power sweeps for SNR customization in acoustic measurements

Huszty, Csaba (1) , Sakamoto, Shinichi (2)

(1) Graduate School, The University of Tokyo, Japan (2) Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Japan

ABSTRACT
Swept signals for acoustic measurements are widely used nowadays to obtain impulse responses of the system under test. The overall spectrum and the inverse filter that compresses the sweep into an impulse together with the background noise conditions prescribe the result's signal-noise ratio as a function of frequency. This paper proposes a time-domain sweep synthesis method using composite square and monomial power function modulated sine sweeps that can customize the resulting SNR-frequency function. Theoretical and practical aspects as well as measurement results are presented.

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Research on acoustic source positioning method for boiler tube leakage

Jiang, Genshan (1) , Wang, Lin (1) , Tian, Jing (2) , Pan, Jie (3)

(1) North China Electric Power University, P.R.China (2) State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Academia Sinica, (3) University of Western Australia, WA, Australia

ABSTRACT
In this paper, by considering the shortcomings of the current boiler pipeline leak monitoring system, a method to perfect the features of location function in the system by using multi-microphones array passive source localization techniques is presented. A model of 660MW boiler is taken for example to simulate the location results for different positions of the leak source location in the furnace of the boiler's body. Additionally, there have been given out the analysis of the effect factors, which included the effect of sound wave propagation through a combustion temperature-field inside a boiler and the reverberation factors caused by the close feature of the boiler, and then the location results of leakages source have been amended from the original results accordingly. And the conclusion is that the combustion temperature gradient field would impact more apparently on the location results of the leakage. Works in this paper may provide some reference for ideas to scolars who studied aspect to this topic.

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Wave propagation interaction in anisotropic piezoelectric porous layer loaded with fluid

Khurana, Poonam , Lauriks, Walter

Laboratorium voor Akoestiek en Thermische Fysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium

ABSTRACT
Piezoelectric materials have been acting as very important functional components in sonar projectors, fluid monitors, pulse generators and surface acoustic wave devices. Moreover, piezoelectric materials have been integrated with the structural systems to form a class of smart structures and embedded as layers or fibers into multifunctional composites. Much of the interest in the subject of electro-acoustic waves is directed towards the applications in the areas of signal processing, transduction and frequency control, where transmission and reflection of acoustic energy at surfaces play an important role. In this article, the wave propagation in porous piezoelectric materials is studied. First, Christoffel equation for plane harmonic waves propagating in porous piezoelectric materials is derived. Solutions for the Christoffel equation are obtained and then those are used to study the reflection-transmission phenomenon in anisotropic piezoelectric layer which is loaded with fluid on both sides. The study finds its applications in various fields such as medical ultrasonic imaging devices, underwater sonar detectors, oil reservoir monitoring.


Cylindrical harmonic expansion of the sound field due to a rotating line source

Poletti, Mark A.

Industrial Research Limited, Wellington, New Zealand

ABSTRACT
The motion of an acoustic source relative to some fixed frame produces a Doppler shifting of the source frequency at a fixed point relative to that frame. For linear motion of the source greater than the speed of sound, the radiated sound forms a shock wave whose angle relative to the direction of motion varies with source speed. Some applications in acoustics involve a sound source rotating around a fixed point in space. For example, in surround sound systems, it may be desirable to generate the sound due to a sound source which moves around the listener. As another example, the Leslie speaker is a rotating loudspeaker system designed to produce amplitude and frequency modulation effects. In aeroacoustics, the noise produced by rotating propellers or rotors is of interest and the linear wave equation solution for a rotating source has some relevance. The description of rotating sources also has applicability in other disciplines such as electromagnetism and astronomy.

This paper develops a cylindrical harmonic expansion for the sound field produced by a rotating line source. The expansion has a simple form and reverts to the standard expression for a fixed line source when the rotation speed is zero. For rotational speeds where the source is supersonic, the sound field produced by the expansion produces features similar to those demonstrated for rotating supersonic point sources, such as a Mach cone emanating from the source position, a spiral cylinder within which the field produces a spiralling pattern, and an inner cusp where the circular wavefronts converge. The expansion is implemented in matlab using a truncated form of the expansion, and examples of sound fields are given for both subsonic and supersonic cases.

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The physics of wedge diffraction: high-frequency approximate solution in the vicinity of shadow boundary

Ueda, Mitsuhiro

Predio Meguro Science Laboratory, Tokyo, Japan

ABSTRACT
We have proposed a new physical principle that is called virtual discontinuity principle of diffraction for analyzing waves diffracted by perfectly reflecting objects and formulated a model for calculating diffracted waves by a sum of two elementary diffracted waves. The model is applied to waves diffracted by a wedge and high-frequency approximate solution for diffracted waves is deducted from the model that is exactly the same as the one that has been already derived from the rigorous solution of waves diffracted by the wedge. It is rare to find the relation derived from the rigorous solution in the relations deducted from the model formulated by a top-down physical principle. Thus the principle is validated fairly by this result. The above approximate solution, however, does not work in the vicinity of shadow boundary. The role of diffracted waves lies in the compensation of discontinuity caused by the geometrical optics solution, that is, discontinuity at shadow boundary. Thus the above agreement may not be enough to validate the principle firmly.

In this presentation high-frequency approximate solution that works in the vicinity of shadow boundary is deducted from the model, whereas it is not succeeded in deriving this relation from the rigorous solution since shadow boundary in diffracted waves occurs at two angles and the angle for shadow boundary changes complicatedly as a function of wedge and source angles. On the other hand shadow boundary in elementary diffracted waves occurs at one angle and its angle equals to the source angle. This outstanding simplification enabled by the new principle makes it possible to deduct the high-frequency approximate solution near shadow boundary from the model and it is combined with the conventional one so that the high-frequency solution can be applied at any angle of observation. The accuracy of the approximate solution is examined by comparing it with the rigorous solution and that of the new approximate solution in the vicinity of shadow boundary is almost the same as that of the conventional one at far outside of shadow boundary. This would validate the new principle further since it should make the analysis remarkably simple. Lastly the implication of the new principle is discussed shortly.

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Acoustic versus ultrasonic breast imaging

Alizad, Azra , Whaley, Dana H. , Urban, Matthew W. , Kinnick, Randall R. , Greenleaf, James F. , Fatemi, Mostafa

Mayo clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA

ABSTRACT
Vibro-acoustography (VA) is an emerging imaging technology. In this method, radiation force of ultrasound is used to vibrate tissue at low (kHz) frequencies. The resulting vibration produces an acoustic field that is detected by a sensitive hydrophone. VA can provide detail information at high resolution that is not available from conventional B-mode ultrasound (US) imaging. Here, we compare VA and US in breast imaging. An experimental VA system was used to image breasts of patients with known lesions of various kinds. Results were compared to US. Image quality was assessed based on contrast, resolution, lesion boundaries, and artifacts. VA images displayed breast cysts with well-defined borders. Fibroadenomas were seen with identifiable texture, and in some cases, with enhanced boundaries. Post-lumpectomy scars were displayed with characteristic structure. Some malignant masses were seen with identifiable spiculations. Compared to US, VA images were speckle free, had high contrast and high signal to noise ratio. Microcalcifications were particularly visible with VA. The combination of features offered by VA, such as lack of image speckle, enhanced lesion boundaries, and sensitivity to microcalcifications, are important advantages of VA over US for breast imaging. It is concluded that VA may become a choice modality for breast imaging.

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Droplet motion and deformation induced by acoustic streaming and radiation pressure

Brunet, Philippe , Baudoin, Michael , Bou-Matar, Olivier , Zoueshtiagh, Farzam

Institut d'Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologies (IEMN), Université Lille 1 and UMR CNRS 8520, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq cedex, France

ABSTRACT
Acoustic waves generated at the surface of a solid substrate can induce deformation, motion and even atomization of partially wetting droplets. The characteristic time scales associated with the droplets response strongly differ from the acoustic period, suggesting the existence of nonlinear coupling between acoustic waves and droplets dynamics. If different behaviors have been observed in different experimental conditions (droplet size, acoustic wave frequency, wetting properties of the liquid), the underlying physics remains unclear. To understand it, a parametric experimental study [P. Brunet et al., Phys. Rev. E, 81, 036315 (2010)] has been performed at a fixed frequency of 20 MHz, by varying the droplet size, the liquid viscosity and the acoustic wave intensity. In these experiments, the free surface of the droplet is modified in three different way: first a breaking of its symmetry, second global oscillations of the droplet and finally small amplitude and higher frequency "trembling modes". To explain all these deformations, two classical nonlinear acoustic driving can ve invoked: first the radiation pressure and second the acoustic streaming. The relative importance of these nonlinear phenomena strongly depends on the frequency considered. At 20 MHz, the acoustic wave is multiply reflected into the droplet and therefore the acoustic radiation pressure plays an important role. At higher frequencies, the acoustic wave hardly reaches the surface and the radiation pressure plays no role. With our experiments, we show that while both acoustic streaming and radiation pressure can induce the asymmetry of the droplet, global oscillations only appear when acoustic radiation is significant. We therefore exhibit for the first time the role played by the acoustic radiation pressure on droplets dynamics in a certain frequency range. The comprehension of these phenomena is of fundamental to minimize the energy required to handle droplet in view of harmless manipulation of biofluids.

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Beyond the geometrical focus in focused acoustic beams

Camarena, Francisco (1) , Makov, Yuri N. (2) , Sánchez-Morcillo, Victor (1) , Adrián, Silvia (1) , Jiménez, Noé (1) , Redondo, Javier (1)

(1) Institut per a la Gestió Integrada de les Zones Costaneres, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain (2) Department of Acoustics, Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Russia

ABSTRACT
The study of the acoustic field characteristics generated by focusing sources, both in linear and nonlinear regime, is an active field of research as they are relevant in most of the ultrasonic applications in medicine and industry. Particularly, the linear shift phenomenon (the distance between the geometrical focus of the focused source and the on-axis maximum pressure position in linear regime, real focus) was explained by Lucas and Muir in 1982 and corrected by Makov et al. in 2006 based on the parabolic approximation to the ordinary wave equation. Also, the nonlinear shift phenomenon (the movement of the pressure and intensity maxima position along the axis of focused acoustic beams under increasing driving voltages) has been related and interpreted in previous works. But, although the nonlinear shift has been observed and explained in previous studies, till the moment it has not been published a specific experiment with the objective to study, experimentally and numerically, the focal region of medium and high Fresnel number transducers, and the magnitude of the this shift. It is important to cover this region of focusing as the majority of the medical devices are there. In this work we evaluate the nonlinear shift of an ultrasonic beam with medium Fresnel number (NF = 6), both in pressure and intensity, as well as we demonstrate that the nonlinear shift is able to move the on axis maximum pressure location beyond the geometrical focus.

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Nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and acoustic slow dynamics for micro-damage characterization, correlation to acoustic emission : new trends for heterogeneous materials Non Destructive Testing (NDT) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)

El Guerjouma, Rachid , Bentahar, Mourad

LAUM (Laboratoire d'Acoustique de l'Université du Maine), Université du Maineand CNRS, Le Mans, France

ABSTRACT
The characterization of damage in structural heterogeneous materials as concrete, rocks, or composites by classical linear acoustical methods, based on the measurement of ultrasonic wave velocities and/or attenuation, does not generally give the expected sensitivity to early damage detection. As such, acoustical Nonlinear methods appear like an interesting alternative. Nonlinear effects can be observed through the distortion of an ultrasonic sine wave when propagating in a medium. In that case, higher harmonics are created and classical nonlinearity predicts that the resonance frequency of the fundamental resonance mode (Young's mode) changes. In this contribution we present a NonLinear Resonance Spectroscopy (NLRS) approach and use some NLRS features as Resonance frequency shift and Q-factor change as a function of the peak amplitude to characterize damage in concrete and polymer-based composite. Materials are characterized at intact and gradually damaged states. Besides, damage was monitored using the Acoustic Emission (AE) generated by the material during the damage process. A classification of the AE signals is proposed to identify the different damage mechanisms and to understand their contribution to the evolution of the NonLinear behaviour of the materials under investigation. Furthermore, another NonLinear phenomenon we investigated in relation with damage is Acoustical Slow Dynamics (ASD) which correspond to the response of the material when an external high drive harmonic acoustic stressing applied to the material is removed. In the case of hysteretic materials the initial properties are not recovered instantaneously but take a given time, which depends on the perturbation level as well as the materials integrity. In this contribution we report observations of ASD behaviour corresponding to a polymer-based composite sample taken at the intact as well as progressively damaged states. ASD measurements are correlated to Acoustic Emission data recorded during the different damage steps. With the help of a proposed classification procedure of AE hits, damage mechanisms are identified and then correlated to the global material ASD relaxation. Original relaxation features are then identified for every damage mechanism. More particularly, relaxation time and frequency shift have been found to be very sensitive to damage creation and development for polymer-based composite and concrete. This work shows the relevance of this approach in developing new highly sensitive methods for Non Destructive Testing (NDT) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) purpose.


Diagnostics of elastic properties of polymerizing polyacrylamide

Korobov, A. I. , Filippova, O. E. , Kokshaisky, A. I.

Faculty Of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

ABSTRACT
Experimental results for the behavior of both linear and nonlinear elastic properties of polyacrylamide polymerization process are shown. Polymerization process has several stages: initiation - first appearance of active polymerization spots, chain growth - consequent joining of monomer molecules to active spots, chain joining - attachment of double monomers to chains. During the 80 minute polymerization process the initial liquid solution is transformed into gel with the different internal structure. For the diagnostics of elastic properties of initial solution during the polymerization process the automated ultrasound device employing impulse method of measurement has been used. Amplitudes of longitudinal acoustical wave at f=5MHZ and its second harmonic at f=10MHz has been measured simultaneously as well as the change of wave velocity dependence on time passed since the start of polymerization. Measurements of the amplitude at excitation frequency as a function of time allowed to calculate the change of absorption. The measurements of wave amplitudes at excitation frequency and at its second harmonic provided the change in nonlinear acoustical parameter which characterizes the non harmonic nature of molecular interaction in polymers. Density of the material and longitudinal velocity of acoustical wave closely resemble that of water and respectively equals to 1003 kg/m3 and 1500 m/sec. The increase in velocity at the beginning of polymerization due to the presence of air bubbles in the initial solution has been observed. That was followed by slow monotonous decrease of velocity as a function of time by approximately 1% of initial value. Changes in absorption and nonlinear acoustical parameter are in fact irregular and have features similar in both parameters at a given time which is believed to be due to ongoing change in the internal structure of the initial material during the polymerization process. That anomalous behavior is observed at 15-60 minute window after the start of polymerization. It is important to note that nonlinear acoustical parameter appeared to be the most sensitive to the processes occurring during polymerization as its value has changed for over 15%. The experimental results are being discussed.


Nonlinear elastic properties of solids with defects

Korobov, A. I. , Rudenko, O. V. , Izossimova, M. Y.

Department Of Acoustics, Faculty Of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

ABSTRACT
One of the interesting and perspective trends if modern acoustics is research of nonlinear processes caused with presence of mesoscale inhomogenuities and material defect structure. Presence of mesoscale inhomogenuities in solids leads to appearance of some new physical properties not presented in homogeneous solids. The example for that are such quantum phenomena as negative magnetoresistance, quantum galvanomagnetic effect, etc. The experiments conducted by number of authors have shown the defects of supramolecular structure of solids give rise to the so-called structure nonlinearity, which has local behavior and may exceed the physical nonlinearities due two lattice anharmonicity by two or three orders of magnitude. However, there still is no universally accepted definition of the quantitative characteristics of structure nonlinearity, such as, e.g., the nonlinear acoustic parameter is for traveling waves. Numerous experiments only reveal the tendency and allow no quantitative comparison of the results. We have analyzed elastic nonlinearity of solids with micro- and nanosacale defects and characteristics features of its manifestations. The meaning of the experimentally measured nonlinear parameters of a medium is discussed. The difference in meaning between the local nonlinearity, which is measured in the vicinity of a single defect and depends on the size of the region of averaging, and the effective volume nonlinearity of the medium containing numerous defects is emphasized. The local nonlinearity arising at the tip of a crack is calculated; this nonlinearity decreases with an increase in the region of second harmonic generation. The volume nonlinearity is calculated for a solid containing spherical cavities. The volume nonlinearity is also calculated for a medium containing infinitely thin cracks in the form of circular disks, which assume the shape of ellipsoids in the course of the crack opening. It has been shown that in the presence of an ensemble of disk shaped cracks (the disks are parallel to each other), contrary to the case with cavities, the amplification of nonlinearity does not depend on Poisson's ratio and linear elastic moduli of the medium. Hence, the estimations have shown the increase in nonlinearity in the presence of cracks can be greater than the nonlinearity increase in the presence of spherical cavities.

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Longitudinal magnetoelastic Riemann wave in a rod

Malkhanov, Alexey , Erofeyev, Vladimir I.

Nizhny Novgorod Branch of Mechanical Engineering Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

ABSTRACT
The propagation of longitudinal magnetoelastic waves in a rod is under our consideration.

Magnetoelasticity is a scientific branch which arose on the junction of mechanics of deformable bodies, electrodynamics and acoustics. It studies dynamic processes arising during interaction between electromagnetic and deformational fields.

The nonlinear Bernoulli's model of a rod has been used for describing longitudinal oscillations. The rod assumed an ideal conductor. For the research we've got the evolutionary equation from the system of equations of magneto-elasticity. For that we entered a small parameter into the system. The obtained evolutionary equation represents Riemann equation with regard to axial deformation.

Profile of the Riemann wave is corrupting along with propagation because different wave's pieces have different velocity. That is why at a certain moment of time the wave turns over. Under this model the time when the wave turns over depends on the value of the external magnetic field.

The profile of the wave has been taken as a sine at initial moment of time. The moment of the wave's inversion grows with increasing of the value of the external magnetic field. Thereby external magnetic field stabilizes the Riemann wave increasing the time of its inversion.

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3D numerical modeling of nonlinear continuous wave ultrasound beam propagation in homogeneous dissipative media

Mashouf, Shahram , Tavakkoli, Jahan

Dept. of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada

ABSTRACT
In this work, a new 3D numerical model to simulate nonlinear propagation of continuous wave ultrasound beams in homogeneous dissipative media is presented. The model implements a second-order operator splitting method in which the effects of diffraction, nonlinearity and attenuation are propagated in sequence over incremental steps. It makes use of an arbitrary 3D source geometry definition and a non axi-symmetric propagation scheme, which leads to a full 3D solution to the resulting nonlinear field. The diffraction sub-step is accomplished by making use of an angular spectrum approach coupled with an enhanced formula to calculate the acoustic pressure in non-planar fields without using the standard linear relationship between pressure and particle velocity. Comparisons with other numerical models (both linear and nonlinear) as well as experimental data show good agreements. The proposed model is a particularly useful tool in carrying out accurate and efficient simulations of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beams in tissue where the effects of nonlinearity, diffraction, and attenuation are significant.

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Time-resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) of the flow in an acoustic standing wave tube

Mongeau, Luc , Rafat, Yasser

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Quebec, Canada

ABSTRACT
The flow field in an acoustic standing wave tube was measured using time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV). Verifications were made through comparisons between measured and predicted acoustic particle velocities in the spa-tial domain and the time domain. The accuracy of the time-resolved PIV system was satisfactory, at least for the peri-odic flow velocity component. The steady streaming flow field was then obtained through synchronous data acquisi-tion. The streaming flow featured recirculation patterns which were different from classical Rayleigh or Schilchting streaming patterns. One possible reason is that the streaming Reynolds number was too low for classical streaming to occur.

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Evaluation of stress corrosion cracks in metals by linear and nonlinear ultrasound

Shintaku, Yohei , Ohara, Yoshikazu , Hashimoto, Makoto , Horinouchi, Satoshi , Yamanaka, Kazushi

Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan

ABSTRACT
In atomic power plant, stress corrosion cracks (SCCs) have been observed in even metals with high corrosion resistance. Although it is needed to evaluate crack depths with high accuracy, there is a concern that cracks were overlooked or underestimated by Non-Destructive Testing. One of the reasons is that SCCs formed in the water at high temperature and high pressure were closed by oxide films. To solve this problem, we focused on subharmonic waves1) generated by the interaction of large-amplitude ultrasound with closed cracks and developed a novel imaging method SPACE (Subharmonic Phased Array for Crack Evaluation). SPACE can image open and closed parts of cracks as a fundamental image (FA) and subharmonic image (SA), respectively. In early studies, we demonstrated the performance such as in SCC in SUS304 base material, but the comparison between different SCCs had not been made yet.

In this study, we evaluated the open-close behavior and crack depths of SCCs formed in different conditions by coherent measurement using SPACE and linear phased array (PA). the objects were (A): SCC introduced from a notch in Inconel600 weld metal in Tetrathionate (B): SCC obliquely extended from a fatigue crack tip in SUS304 base metal in MgCl2. As a result, in (A) we could image similar crack tips in PA and FA, but we could not image cracks in SA. Therefore, the crack tips of (A) were estimated to be open and then it is confirmed by destructive testing. On the other hand, in (B) we could imaged crack tips of equal depth in PA and FA, in addition, we sometimes imaged deeper cracks in SA than in FA. Therefore, some crack tips of (B) were estimated to be closed. It is interesting to note that SCC (A) and (B) were both introduced by accelerated test in chemical solutions, though one was opened and another was partly closed. The specimens are base material and weld meal, thus each metallographic structures differed greatly. However, there have been no report on the difference of closure state between SCC(A) and (B) caused by the difference between metallographic structures. Therefore, it would necessary to consider the difference of stress state at the points of introduction of SCCs. For this purpose it is useful to evaluate various SCCs in the same material by SPACE and to compare and discuss the crack closure behavior in detail.

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Classical and non-classical nonlinear acoustic effects discerned by airborne ultrasound

Solodov, Igor , Döring, Daniel , Busse, Gerd

Department for Non-Destructive Testing, Institute for Polymer Technology, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany

ABSTRACT
Nonlinear effects in air, which are regarded as fundamentals of classical nonlinear acoustics, were experimentally investigated solely in a sonic frequency range. The present study extends the results into the ultrasonic frequency range of hundreds kHz. An acousto-optic technique of air-coupled vibrometry (ACV) has been adapted for imaging and non-invasive quantitative probing of nonlinear airborne ultrasound. At fundamental frequency of 200 kHz, the Mach number is shown to rise up to M>0.001 even for ultrasonic beams used in commercial equipment that makes the high frequency airborne ultrasound strongly nonlinear. The experiments confirm that such beams are affected by nonlinear attenuation and intense second harmonic generation. The experimental results comply well with theoretical estimations which account for interplay between acoustic dissipation and nonlinearity.

In non-perfect solid materials, the acoustic nonlinearity develops quite differently from classical lattice nonlinearity due to strongly nonlinear vibrations in the flaw areas. In this study, such non-classical local nonlinearity is shown to be accompanied by the radiation of high-frequency airborne ultrasound (Nonlinear Air-Coupled Emission (NACE). A direct visualization of the NACE in the form of higher-order harmonics and sub-harmonics from damaged areas in solid materials and components by using the ACV is reported. The ACV also quantifies the nonlinear airborne radiation produced by non-classical nonlinearity of planar defects. The imaging technique is effective in defect characterization by identifying their far-field NACE patterns since the directivity of the radiated field is a spatial Fourier transform of the vibration velocity distribution in the source (defect) area. An efficient radiation of airborne higher harmonics enables to apply conventional air-coupled transducers for detecting NACE which is used as a nonlinear "tag" to locate and image the defects.

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Resonant amplification of evanescent acoustic waves by a slab of 2D magnetic acoustic metamaterials

Sukhorukova, O. S. (1) , Tarasenko, S. V. (1) , Laptyeva, T. V. (1) , Shavrov, V. G. (2) , Yurchenko, V. M. (1)

(1) Donetsk A.A. Galkin Institute of Physics & Engineering of NASU, Ukraine (2) V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering & Electronics of RAS, Moscow, Russia

ABSTRACT
At the present time the search of acoustic analogies of extraordinary electromagnetic properties of metamaterials (such as superlenses, cloaking, negative refraction, double negative medium etc.) is the main direction of the composite medium of modern physical acoustics. However, despite the constantly growing number of publications devoted to this theme, all theoretical and experimental works known until now were associated exclusively with non magnetic acoustic metamaterials.

The aim of this report is the theoretical studying of the possibility of resonance amplification of SH evanescent acoustic wave by means of 2D magnetic acoustic metamaterials slab. As an example of 2D magnetic acoustic material we consider the two-component acoustically continuous structure representing an elastically isotropic nonmagnetic solid matrix in which there is a set of infinite ferro- or antiferrromagnetic rods of circular cross section with a metal covering. In the frame of effective medium approximation the necessary conditions, under which for acoustically continuous structure from2D magnetic acoustic material slab and elastically isotropic nonmagnetic layer the incident shear elastic wave (volume or evanescent) reflection coefficient is equal to zero, is determined. The anomalies found in this work in the propagation of the shear elastic wave through a layered acoustically continuous structure containing a layer of a composite magnetic material represent an acoustic analogue of the effect of amplification of photon tunneling by a layer of the uniaxial anisotropic left medium.


Vibro-acoustic behavior of micro-perforated plate to sound absorption performance

Tanaka, Toshimitsu (1) , Kusakari, Tatsuhiro (1) , Tsugihashi, Kazuki (2)

(1) Seikei University, Tokyo, Japan (2) Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe, Japan

ABSTRACT
As a new sound absorption material, micro-perforated aluminum thin plate has been developed, which is strong for water, oil, or heat. But thin plate is easily vibrated by sound pressure. And the vibration affects the performance of sound absorption. We experimented to make clear the relation between the coefficient of sound absorption and the vibration of micro-perforated plate. Natural frequencies and vibration modes of micro-perforated thin aluminum plate were observed by using the scanning laser Dopper vibrometer, and the sound absorption coefficient of that plate was measured by two microphone method. We found that the sound absorption performance was affected by natural vibration modes and that there was the special mode to decrease sound absorption performance remarkably when the phase of particle velocity of air and vibration velocity of the plate became same. We also found that damping is effective to improve the local depression of the sound absorption coefficient.

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The acoustic source strength of high-energy blast waves: combining measurements and a non-linear model

van der Eerden, Frits, van den Berg, Frank

Acoustics Department, TNO Science and Industry, Delft, The Netherlands

ABSTRACT
In the densely populated area of the Netherlands, the objective of the Netherlands Ministry of Defence is to find an optimal balance between military training and the impact on the surrounding civilian community. A special case concerns large weapons, such as armor, artillery or demolitions, which create high-energy blast waves. These waves have a low frequency content, typically between 15 and 125 Hz, and can propagate over large distances. As a result it is a relative important cause for annoyance. By using a dedicated model for military training facilities, rating sound levels around the facility can be calculated for different training situations and the effect of measures can be determined. This model uses a linear sound propagation and an equivalent linear source strength. The source is measured at a sufficiently large distance, between 100 and 200m, where the sound propagation has become linear. As a consequence the effect of the ground and the meteorology is also measured and one has to correct for these effects. A more efficient approach has been tested, where the measurements are done close to the source, at typically less than 10 meters distance. The linear source strength is then calculated by applying a non-linear propagation model. The result are compared to the conventional measurement method. Another advantage of applying the non-linear model, and the nonlinear source strength, is that the effect of mitigation measures close to the source can be determined.

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Aeolian tones generated by a square cylinder with a splitter plate

Ali, Mohamed Sukri Mat (1) , Doolan, Con J. (1) , Wheatley, Vincent (2)

(1) School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Australia (2) School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, Australia

ABSTRACT
The generation of aeolian tones by the interaction of a low Reynolds number, low Mach numbers flow with a rigid square cylinder attached with a rigid thin flat plate is numerically investigated. When the length of the plate is varied from L = 0.5D to 6D, where D is the side length of the square cylinder, the results can be grouped into three distinct regimes. For the first flow regime (L lesssim D), the aoelian tone levels decreases with increasing of the plate length. For the second regime (2D lesssim L lesssim 4D), the aeolian tone levels are always higher than the single square cylinder case and they increase with increasing of the plate length. For the third regime (5D lesssim L lesssim 6D), the levels of the aeolian tone decrease as the length of the plate is increases but the levels are higher than other regimes. These acoustic results can be explained in terms of fluid mechanics occurring in the near wake of the cylinder.

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Design and calibration of a small aeroacoustic beamformer

Arcondoulis, Elias J. G. , Doolan, Con J. , Zander, Anthony C. , Brooks, Laura A.

School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, SA, Australia

ABSTRACT
The use of aeroacoustic beamforming has increased dramatically in the past decade. The primary driving force behind this has been the need to improve the noise characteristics of aircraft and automotive vehicles, coupled with ever increasing computer processing power. Aeroacoustic beamforming is an experimental technique that uses an array of microphones located in the far field of acoustic noise sources generated by a body in air flow. Each microphone measures an acoustic magnitude and relative phase based on its unique position with respect to the acoustic source(s). Beamforming algorithms process this data, typically to generate spatial noise source plots over a two dimensional grid at each frequency of interest. Much of the available aeroacoustic beamforming literature presents results at relatively high frequencies corresponding to large facilities, scale models, and available budgets, which can potentially set unrealistic goals for the development of a small-scale university research facility. This paper details the design and calibration of a small aeroacoustic beamformer, designed to investigate airfoil trailing edge noise for low to moderate Reynolds number flows. The optimisation of the microphone array, based on spatial, air flow and financial constraints, is presented. The algorithms which were used to calculate the beamformer outputs are described, as well as the array calibration process, including beamforming of various noise sources in an anechoic environment. The array is shown to successfully detect and accurately locate both tonal and broadband noise sources.

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Time-domain simulations for outdoor sound propagation : surface waves and ground effects

Blanc-Benon, Philippe (1) , Dragna, Didier (1) , Poisson, F. (2)

(1) Laboratoire de Mécanique des Fluides et d'Acoustique, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully, France (2) Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer, Paris, France

ABSTRACT
Outdoor sound propagation involves many complex phenomena such as interactions between the acoustic waves with local wind and temperature fluctuations in the atmospheric boundary layer or terrain effects due to impedance ground and topography. Moreover, in the context of transportation noise, acoustic sources are usually broadband and in motion. Time-domain numerical solutions of the linearized Euler equations (LEE) are well suited to study broadband noise propagation outdoors, since they can take into account the interactions of the acoustic waves with local wind and temperature fluctuations in the atmospheric boundary layer. The motion of the acoustic sources can also be considered with this type of simulations, which can be useful in the context of transportation noise. Finite-difference time-domain methods are thus becoming increasingly popular in the outdoor sound propagation community. One of the main difficulties is to account for the reflection of acoustic waves over an impedance ground. A time-domain boundary condition has been recently proposed and has been implemented in a finite-difference time-domain solver using methods developed for computational aeroacoustics. We will first considered the propagation of an initial pulse over a distance of 100 m in a three-dimensional geometry in a frequency band up to 600 Hz. Surface waves which propagate close to and parallel to impedance grounds are exhibited. The numerical results are compared in time-domain with an analytical solution. The tails of the pressure signals are well predicted by the surface wave. Then a long range configuration in 2D geometry is also investigated in homogeneous conditions and in downward-refracting conditions with an impedance of a grassy ground and of a snow ground. Numerical results are compared in time domain to an analytical solution for homogeneous conditions and to a ray-tracing code for downward-refracting conditions. Near the ground, surfaces waves are the dominant arrivals in the two cases.

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Hybrid CFD/BEM approach to predicting flow induced noise

Croaker, Paul (1) , Kinns, Roger (1) , Kessissoglou, Nicole (1) , Norrison, Daniel (2) , Widjaja, Ronny (2) , Marburg, Steffen (3)

(1) School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia (2) Maritime Platforms Division, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Melbourne, Australia (3) Institute of Mechanics, Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg, Germany

ABSTRACT
A computational approach is proposed to extract the acoustic sources generated by low Mach number flow past a circular cylinder and to predict the associated far-field acoustic pressure. The transient hydrodynamic flow field is calculated using an incompressible computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. The acoustic sources are extracted from the hydrodynamic flow field based on the linearised perturbed compressible equations (LPCE). These acoustic sources are combined with a boundary element method (BEM) model of a rigid circular cylinder and the far field sound pressure level is predicted. The results from this hybrid CFD/BEM approach are presented for flow past a circular cylinder with Reynolds number, ReD=100 and Mach number, M=0.15. The directivity of the radiated sound pressure field at the vortex shedding frequency agrees well with results of alternate methods available in the literature.

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Statistical estimation of turbulent trailing edge noise

Doolan, Con J. , Gonzalez, C. Albarracin , Hansen, Colin H.

School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Adelaide, SA, Australia

ABSTRACT
The efficient computation of turbulent airfoil trailing edge noise is important for the cost-effective design of fixed and rotary-wing aircraft, wind turbines, fans and submarines. Recently, the computation of trailing edge noise has mainly been attempted using either direct or hybrid methods of computational aeroacoustics (CAA). However, many of these approaches rely on expensive transient flow solution methods for acoustic source term calculation, such as direct numerical simulation (DNS) or large eddy simulation (LES), which aren't appropriate for engineering design purposes. This paper will present a new approach for calculating turbulent trailing edge noise. Instead of using DNS or LES for a flow solution, the method uses mean flow solutions (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes or RANS) and a statistical model to calculate acoustic source terms and radiated far-field noise. After the method is presented, results showing the noise generated by the passage of turbulent flow past a sharp edged flat plate will be shown. For the purposes of validation, the model will use mean flow data from both DNS and RANS solutions to calculate the acoustic source terms. Simulated noise will then be compared with an empirical model of flat-plate trailing edge noise. The paper will conclude with remarks on the accuracy of the method and a discussion of future test cases required to test its validity in more challenging flow conditions.

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Development of low-noise centrifugal fans in a refrigerator

Heo, Seung , Cheong, Cheolung

Pusan National University, Korea

ABSTRACT
In this paper, low-noise centrifugal fans are developed by applying a new design concept which can reduce the airfoil-self noise by inducing phase differences of potential sources on trailing edge lines of fan blades in the span-wise direction. These design concepts are realized by modifying existing linear trailing edge lines of fan blades into the inclined S-shaped trailing edge lines. First, the validity of low-design concepts are confirmed by the experiments carried out with four prototype fans. These results show that noise reductions of approximately 2 to 3.5 dB are achieved for the new fans in comparison with the original fan. These reductions are retained over the range of rotation speed of fans from 1800 rpm to 2400 rpm. The detailed comparison of sound pressure spectrums between the new fans and original fan reveals that these reductions are mainly due to broadband noise reduction but not BPF components. To analyze the detailed mechanisms of noise reduction of newly developed inclined S-shaped fans, further analysis is made by using hybrid computational aeroacoustic techniques where the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the acoustic analogy, and the boundary method (BEM) are sequentially used. The validity of numerical results is confirmed by comparing the predicted BPF noise components with the measurement. It is found that the turbulence kinetic energy of the fluid, predicted for the inclined S-shaped fans, is less than those for the existing fan. This implies that the main mechanism for the nose reduction of newly developed fans is due to the decreased turbulence energy considered as a qualitative index for the source magnitude of broadband self-noise.

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The effect of grazing-bias flow on the self sustained oscillations in a side branch

Holmberg, Andreas , Karlsson, Mikael

The Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

ABSTRACT
Junctions and cavities are common elements in flow ducts such as automotive intake and exhaust systems, ventilation systems or pipelines. The aeroacoustic response of such elements is strongly influenced by the mean flow configuration in the system. The fluid-acoustic interaction is in low Mach number applications often described as the continuous interaction of hydrodynamic instabilities with the acoustic field as they are convected across the aperture. The interaction can be constructive or deconstructive, that is, both attenuation and amplification of incident sound is possible. At low amplification rates the system is still linear; however if the amplification rate is too high, the interaction becomes nonlinear leading to a self-sustained oscillation. This can lead to intense noise and even mechanical failure. The frequencies where a system potentially can sustain an oscillation can be predicted from analysis of the linear system since the frequency at which it occurs is given by the convection of the hydrodynamic instabilities across the aperture (which is not influenced by the vorticity strength). Hence, the interaction between the hydrodynamic and acoustic field collapse well with a Strouhal number based on the frequency of the incident sound and the convection velocity of the hydrodynamic disturbance. A well defined case is grazing flow past an orifice, here the characteristic length is easily defined (simply the effective length of the aperture) and the convection velocity is around half the mean flow velocity. Other flow configurations are not as obvious to define. An example is studied here; a T-junction is subjected simultaneously to grazing and bias flow, and hence, both the effective length the vorticity travels across the aperture as well as the convection velocity will change. The purpose of this work is to understand and quantify the influence on the collapse Strouhal number of grazing-bias flow.

The method is mainly experimental and involves detailed measurement on a T-junction of rectangular cross-section. The T-junction is seen as a linear acoustic three-port from which quantities of interest can be derived. The three-port is determined via the two-microphone wave decomposition method using the source switching technique. Since the whole analysis assumes a linear system the excitation of the system (here by loudspeakers) must not be too high, also any resonant system should be avoided. Hence, each branch of the three-port is terminated with a large resistive silencer.

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Linear stability analysis applied to flow duct acoustics

Karlsson, Mikael

Markus Wallenberg Laboratory for Sound and Vibration Research, Stockholm, Sweden

ABSTRACT
Modelling of the acoustic properties and especially the influence and interaction with mean flow in ducts is a challenge. Often the problem is reduced assuming that the system under study can be broken down into a network of linear multiports. These multiports are then characterised individually either analytically or by experiments or numerical simulations.

In control theory methods for assessing the stability of this type of networks of multiports are widely used. Applying the Nyquist stability criteria frequencies where the system can become unstable at a certain gain is identified. In this work the Nyquist stability criteria will be applied to detect frequencies where self sustained oscillation can occur in a flow duct system. The test case is a side branch orifice, realised as a T-Junction, which is subjected to grazing flow. Hydrodynamic instabilities in the shear layer interact with the acoustic field while being convected across the orifice. When the acoustic period match the travel time of the hydrodynamic instabilities incident sound can be amplified. If the amplification rate is sufficiently high, as it would be if a resonant system is present, the response become non linear resulting in a self-sustained oscillation. First the T-junction is characterised experimentally and presented as a linear acoustic three-port. This three-port is then connected to other linear elements to form a simple network. Finally the stability analysis is applied to the complete system matrix. It is shown that providing a resonant system with the appropriate characteristics to match the fluid-acoustic interaction at the orifice the system is unstable. It is also possible to find the amount of damping needed to make the system stable again. The results are of great practical use for anyone involved in designing flow duct systems. Being able to predict a non linear phenomenon such as self sustained oscillations by simple linear models is a most effective engineering tool.

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Simulations of acoustic scattering in duct systems with flow

Kierkegaard, A. , Boij, S. , Efraimsson, G.

MWL Sound and Vibrations, Linne FLOW Centre, KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

ABSTRACT
We present an efficient methodology to perform calculations of acoustic propagation and scattering by geometrical objects in ducts with flows. In this paper a methodology with a linearized Navier-Stokes equations solver in frequency domain is evaluated on a two-dimensional geometry of an in-duct area expansion. The Navier-Stokes equations are linearized around a time- independent mean flow that is obtained from an incompressible Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes solver which uses a k-e turbulence model. A plane wave decomposition method based on acoustic pressure and velocity is used to extract the up- and downstream propagating waves. The scattering of the acoustic waves by the induct area expansion is calculated and compared to experiments. Frequencies in the plane wave range up to the cut-on frequency of the first higher order propagating acoustical mode are considered. The acoustical properties of the area expansion is presented in a scattering matrix form that can be used in acoustical two-port calculations on complex duct systems such as exhaust system mufflers and ventilation systems.

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Uncertainty assessment for outdoor sound propagation

Leroy, Olivia (1) , Gauvreau, Benoit (1) , Junker, Fabrice (2) , de Rocquigny, Etienne (3) , Bérengier, Michel (1)

(1) Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées, France (2) Électricité de France R&D, France (3) Laboratoire Mathématiques Appliquées aux Systèmes, Ecole Centrale Paris, France

ABSTRACT
Intrinsic variability due to micrometeorological effects and/or ground effects, measurement uncertainty and model uncertainty are the main sources of spreading of the parameters influencing outdoor sound propagation. Thus spreading associated to outdoor SPL is a complex combination of deterministic, stochastic and epistemic uncertainties, and can be quantified thanks to a probabilistic process. This statistical process is presented in this paper and is called Calibration Under Uncertainty (CUU). Quantitative uncertainty assessment involves a pre-existing physical system to be studied, input data which can be measured or derived from measurements, and a sufficient amount of available (experimental and/or numerical) data with an eventual human expertise. CUU couples information from experimental and modelled data taking into account their own uncertainties (measurements errors, lack of knowledge on physical behavior, etc.) under specific assumptions. Quantify the global uncertainty on SPL, rank or apportion the contributions of influent parameters to a given output quantity of interest, compare experimental and effective parameters, and more generally understand the whole input-output structure are the main tasks of such a statistical method. CUU process has been applied to more or less complex cases using a large experimental set of data (Lannemezan 2005 (F)). An application to near ground sound propagation has been first led to understand the relative influence of ground parameters. A more complex case considering large distances and including micrometeorological effects has also been fulfilled with promising results which are presented in this paper.

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Reducing the acoustic signature of a UAV propeller operating at low Reynolds numbers

Leslie, Angus , Wong, K. C. , Auld, Doug

University of Sydney, NSW, Australia

ABSTRACT
The acoustic signature of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) is one of the limiting factors facing the expanding use of these platforms for both civil and military uses. The overall propeller noise signature can be reduced by firstly reducing the motor noise and the blade passage noise, which is a result of the propellers rotational speed, diameter and shape. However, once these are optimised only modifications to the propeller self noise will help to further reduce the platforms noise signature. This investigation presents one method that will reduce the propeller self noise through tripping the boundary layer on a small propeller (diameter ~250mm) with a short chord length (15~30mm) with blades operating at low Reynolds numbers. Laminar separation bubbles commonly occur on propellers of this size as a result of the low Reynolds number conditions existing on blades. Experiments have shown that boundary layer tripping not only reduces that drag of the blade, but when a laminar separation bubble on the suction surface of the propeller blade is eliminated a noise reduction occurs as well. The reasons for this noise reduction were not initially clear, and so its characteristics were examined experimentally on a rotating propeller in both static and wind tunnel conditions. These experiments have helped to show that a number of aerofoil noise mechanisms are at work simultaneously, and do not necessarily occur as the simple turbulent or laminar boundary layer noise models as traditionally believed. Analyse of the spectral peaks has exhibited characteristics of laminar boundary layer noise, even with the presents of a laminar separation bubble which would promote boundary layer transition to occur on the blade surface. Comparisons with literature models such as the semi-empirical aerofoil self noise model of Brooks, Pope, et al (1989) have also shown agreement with laminar boundary layer noise characteristics.

The leading edge trip has proved successful in achieving a broadband reduction in simulated operational conditions which resulted in up to a ~6dBA SPL repeatable noise reduction at the sample location, but has not yet been successful in fly over tests. It is hypothesised that the laminar separation bubble is the most likely amplification source for the Tollmien-Schlichting instability waves, which then reach sufficient amplitude to be radiated as noise from the trailing edge. The elimination of the laminar separation bubble removes the strong laminar boundary layer noise source and also reduces the noise generated by the turbulent boundary layer.

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Tomographic reconstruction of the inclining vortex wind field from the acoustic travel time data between a pair of facing line array

Li, Haiyue , Yamada, Akira

Tokyo University of Agriculture & Technology, Tokyo, Japan

ABSTRACT
A monitoring system for a gust of wind like a tornado is desired such as in railroads or airports. It is not realistic to use an anemometer for this purpose because ordinary anemometers are of fixed observation in situ and large numbers must be needed. In order to encounter the problem, acoustic line array elements were placed along the facing sides of the monitoring region. From the remote observation of the travel time along the multiple propagation path between the facing line elements, two-dimensional vortex air flow profile was reconstructed based on the Fourier central slice theorem valid for the vector vortex air flow fields. The previous method by the present authors was extended to cover the inclining vortex wind field including the vertical axial air flow component. To this end, the target horizontal vortex components were discriminated from the axial flow components using the symmetrical property of the travel time characteristics over the observation line. As a indoor experiment system, 10 pairs of ultrasound transmitter/receiver were arrayed on a facing sides of the measurement region of 36cm x 36cm. Vortex wind fields from the electric fan (with diameter 190 mm) were reconstructed under the various wind source conditions. The results were demonstrated that precisions of the estimated vortex parameters (maximum vortex flow speed, size and position of the vortex wind field) were satisfactory which justifies the feasibility of the present method.

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Acoustic analysis of flat plate trailing edge noise

Moreau, Danielle J. , Tetlow, Matthew R. , Brooks, Laura A. , Doolan, Con J.

School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5005 Australia

ABSTRACT
This paper presents an acoustic analysis of the noise generated at the trailing edge of a flat plate encountering low turbulence fluid flow. Experimental measurements were taken in an anechoic wind tunnel using four microphones: one mounted above the trailing edge, one below the trailing edge, one adjacent to the trailing edge and one above the leading edge. The noise spectra produced by the flat plate were recorded at the four microphone locations. Information about the strength and directivity of the trailing edge noise is determined by comparing the four signals. Subtracting the out-of-phase signals at the microphones above and below the trailing edge is shown to increase the airfoil self-noise spectra further above that of the ambient noise and is shown to be an effective signal extraction technique.

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Comparative study on finite-difference and finite-volume implementations of the linearized Euler model for outdoor sound propagation simulations

Oshima, Takuya

Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, Japan

ABSTRACT
Rapidly growing recent demands in accurate simulations in the processes of acoustic designs involving outdoor acoustic environments, such as road traffic noise barriers, have urged developments and applications of more advanced models that can deal with characteristics of such outdoor environments. The linearized Euler model is known to be one of the most accurate models for such advanced simulations in that the model can take into account the effects of nonuniform and even unsteady turbulent background flows and temperature gradients which supposedly have large influences to typical outdoor acoustic propagation situations. The model has traditionally been implemented using finite-difference numerics under structured grids thanks to its compatibility with higher-order schemes. However, for real world urban complex geometries such as urban city blocks it may make sense to apply finite-volume technique which in general is computationally more heavy but can handle full unstructured grids. In the present study, linearized Euler implementations based on the traditional second- and higher-order finite-difference techniques and the new unstructured finite-volume technique are compared in terms of errors from theoretical solutions and computational costs. A modified version of one of the benchmark problems laid down by the NASA/LaRC CAA workshop is used as the testcase. The accuracy of the results by the finite-volume technique turned out to match those by finite-difference techniques with slight lags, however with 20 - 300 times higher processor and memory usages.


Localization of stationary sound sources in flows by using a time-reversal method

Padois, Thomas , Graveline, Valentin , Prax, Christian , Valeau, Vincent

Département Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, Institut Pprime CNRS, Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France

ABSTRACT
The time-reversal (TR) technique has been extensively developed over the two last decades, but very few applications

have concerned the field of aeroacoustics. The possibility of using the TR technique in the context of wind-tunnel

measurements is then investigated in this study, in order to localize a sound source in a flow. The chosen strategy is

the following: in a first experimental step, the pressure fluctuations are recorded in the far field over a linear array of

microphones, located outside the flow; in a second simulation step, the experimental signals are time-reversed and used

as input data. The time-reversed linearized Euler equations are then solved numerically in order to model the sound

propagation through the shear layer and the flow. The back-propagated pressure field is then investigated, both in terms

of energy and phase. Some preliminary simulations show that it is possible to localize a monopolar source located in a

flow by using this method. The experimental results at Mach number 0.12 show that a monopolar source at 5 kHz can

be satisfactorily located, with an error of the order of half-the acoustic wavelength. Some measurements concerning

a dipolar source are also presented: the effects of the flow on the radiation appear clearly on the data, and the source

position is estimated with an error of the order of the acoustic wavelength.

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Battlefield target localization using acoustic vector sensor on board UAV

Prabhu, C. (1) , Sadasivan, S. (2) , Anitha, G. (3)

(1) Madras Institute of Technology, Anna Uuniversity, Chennai, India (2) Aeronautical Development Establishment, Bangalore, India (3) Division of Avionics, Madras Institute of Technology, Anna Uuniversity, Chennai, India

ABSTRACT

Источник: https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:259687/ica2010_DETAILS.htm?dsi_version=b659ae592d20563644698bc75fdbf8f8
  • 作   者:   "yue li"
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  • Genome-Wide Analysis of CCT Transcript Factors to Identify Genes Contributing to Photoperiodic Flowering in Oryza rufipogon
    Frontiers in Plant Science (IF 5.753) Pub Date : 2021-11-08 ,DOI:10.3389/fpls.2021.736419
    Xin Peng, Win Tun, Shuang-feng Dai, Jia-yue Li, Qun-jie Zhang, Guo-ying Yin, Jinmi Yoon, Lae-hyeon Cho, Gynheung An, Li-zhi Gao
    Photoperiod sensitivity is a dominant determinant for the phase transition in cereal crops. CCT (CONSTANS, CO-like, and TOC1) transcription factors (TFs) are involved in many physiological functions including the regulation of the photoperiodic flowering. However, the functional roles of CCT TFs have not been elucidated in the wild progenitors of crops. In this study, we identified 41 CCT TFs, including ...
  • Effects of emotional faces on working memory in adolescents with learning anxiety
    Current Psychology (IF 4.297) Pub Date : 2021-11-06 ,DOI:10.1007/s12144-021-02469-x
    Shen, Yue, Li, Zhaocong, Shao, Man, Liu, Yingwei, Zhang, Yiyun
    Previous studies on working memory processing characteristics of anxious people have focused more on effects of trait than state anxiety, especially the processing characteristics of working memory under emotional faces. Learning anxiety not only affects teenagers’ learning but also their life and overall personality development. This is the first study to examine adolescents with learning anxiety ...
  • The regulation of CPNE1 ubiquitination by the NEDD4L is involved in the pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer
    Cell Death Discovery (IF 5.241) Pub Date : 2021-11-06 ,DOI:10.1038/s41420-021-00736-1
    Ruochen Zhang, Weijie Zhang, Yuanyuan Zeng, Yue Li, Jieqi Zhou, Yang Zhang, Anqi Wang, Yantian Lv, Jianjie Zhu, Zeyi Liu, Jian-an Huang
       Our previous studies revealed that oncogene CPNE1 is positively correlated with the occurrence, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and it could be regulated by micro RNAs. But no direct role of post-translational modification of CPNE1 in NSCLC has been reported. This study confirms that CPNE1 is degraded by two pathways: the ubiquitin-proteasome ...
  • Optimal Excitation Wavelength for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy: The Role of Chemical Interface Damping
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (IF 6.475) Pub Date : 2021-11-05 ,DOI:10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c03535
    Shuyi Zhu, Haoming Bao, Hongwen Zhang, Hao Fu, Qian Zhao, Le Zhou, Yue Li, Weiping Cai
    The optimal excitation wavelength (OEW) for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is generally close to that of the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). In some cases, however, the OEW is significantly longer than that of the observed LSPR. Its origin is still unclear and controversial. Here, we propose a chemical interface damping (CID)-based mechanism and reveal the origin of the OEW’s deviation ...
  • Optimization and analysis of the acoustic and resistance performance of the plenum chamber via sample entropy and large eddy simulation
    Building and Environment (IF 6.456) Pub Date : 2021-11-05 ,DOI:10.1016/j.buildenv.2021.108545
    Chi Zhang, Angui Li, Jiaxing Li, Haimeng Li, Yue Li, Jing Xiong, Wenchao Lv, Jigang Che, Jinnan Guo, Xiaoya Zhang
    The noise of the plenum chamber plays an important role in the acoustic performance evaluation of ventilation and air condition (VAC) systems. The large eddy simulation (LES) model and Ffowcs Williams & Hawkings (FW–H) equation were used to obtain the transient flow and aerodynamic noise, respectively, and a continuous and uniform impedance boundary condition was introduced to calculate the transmission ...

共有6354个结果符合您的查询条件,只显示了前300个,请优化您的查询条件,以获取更精确的结果。

Источник: https://www.x-mol.com/paper/search/byFaculty/236874

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  • Honeycam 3.07 Crack Serial Key - Free Activators Design, synthesis and evaluation of carbazole derivatives as potential antimicrobial agents.
    Journal of Enzyme inhibition and Medicinal Chemistry (IF 5.051) Pub Date : 2021-12-01 ,DOI:10.1080/14756366.2020.1850713
    Yi-Jie Xue,Ming-Yue Li,Xue-Jun Jin,Chang-Ji Zheng,Hu-Ri Piao
       Five series of novel carbazole derivatives containing an aminoguanidine, dihydrotriazine, thiosemicarbazide, semicarbazide or isonicotinic moiety were designed, synthesised and evaluated for their antimicrobial activities. Most of the compounds exhibited potent inhibitory activities towards different bacterial strains (including one multidrug-resistant clinical isolate) and one fungal strain with minimum .
  • Environmental enrichment combined with fasudil promotes motor function recovery and axonal regeneration after stroke
    Neural Regeneration Research (IF 5.135) Pub Date : 2021-12-01 ,DOI:10.4103/1673-5374.313048
    Yi-Tong Zhu, Qun Zhang, Hong-Yu Xie, Ke-Wei Yu, Gao-Jing Xu, Si-Yue Li, Yi Wu
       Fasudil, a Rho-associated protein kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, has a protective effect on the central nervous system. In addition, environmental enrichment is a promising technique for inducing the recovery of motor impairments in ischemic stroke models. The present study aimed to explore whether environmental enrichment combined with fasudil can facilitate motor function recovery and induce cortical axonal .
  • A comprehensive review on microbial production of 1,2-propanediol: micro-organisms, metabolic pathways, and metabolic engineering
    Biotechnology for Biofuels (IF 6.04) Pub Date : 2021-11-18 ,DOI:10.1186/s13068-021-02067-w
    Tao, Yuan-ming, Bu, Chong-yang, Zou, Li-hua, Hu, Yue-li, Zheng, Zhao-Juan, Ouyang, Jia
       1,2-Propanediol is an important building block as a component used in the manufacture of unsaturated polyester resin, antifreeze, biofuel, nonionic detergent, etc. Commercial production of 1,2-propanediol through microbial biosynthesis is limited by low efficiency, and chemical production of 1,2-propanediol requires petrochemically derived routes involving wasteful power consumption and high pollution .
  • Phenology determines water use strategies of three economic tree species in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China
    Agricultural and Forest Meteorology (IF 5.734) Pub Date : 2021-11-17 ,DOI:10.1016/j.agrformet.2021.108716
    Wenjie Wu, Ze Tao, Guangjie Chen, Tingfang Meng, Yue Li, Hao Feng, Bingcheng Si, Kiril Manevski, Mathias Neumann Andersen, Kadambot H.M. Siddique
    Economic tree species growing in the semi-arid Loess Plateau of China are important for maintaining sound economic viability and protecting the fragile hydro-ecological environment. However, their water use strategies and ecological adaptation to dryland environments remain poorly understood. In this study, we measured variations in soil water content, root distribution, water isotopic signature for .
  • Synthesis of polycarboxylate superplasticizer modified by β-cyclodextrin for possessing clay tolerance
    Journal of Applied Polymer Science (IF 3.125) Pub Date : 2021-11-16 ,DOI:10.1002/app.51918
    Yue Li, Hongwen Li, Caiyun Jin, Bingyin Zhao, Yusheng Wu
    Polycarboxylate superplasticizer (PCE) is widely used in concrete, but the clay content in the aggregate is increasing at present, which seriously weakens the dispersing function of PCE. Therefore, in order to lower the sensitivity of PCE to the clay, -cyclodextrin (β-CD) was used for synthesizing anti-clay polycarboxylate superplasticizers (AC-PCE). Firstly, the clay tolerance property of AC-PCE was .
  • An Overview of EEG-based Machine Learning Methods in Seizure Prediction and Opportunities for Neurologists in this Field
    Neuroscience (IF 3.59) Pub Date : 2021-11-16 ,DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2021.11.017
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    The unpredictability of epileptic seizures is one of the most problematic aspects of the field of epilepsy. Methods or devices capable of detecting seizures minutes before they occur may help prevent injury or even death and significantly improve the quality of life. Machine learning (ML) is an emerging technology that can markedly enhance algorithm performance by interpreting data. ML has gained increasing Rising Antivirus Free Crack - Crack Key For U .
  • Nursing Home Residents With Dementia: Association Between Place of Death and Patient Safety Culture.
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    Jessica Orth,Yue Li,Adam Simning,Sheryl Zimmerman,Helena Temkin-Greener
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Nursing homes (NHs) care for 70% of Americans dying with dementia. Many consider deaths in NHs rather than hospitals as preferable for most of these residents. NH characteristics such as staff teamwork, communication, and other components of patient safety culture (PSC), together with state minimum NH nurse staffing requirements, may influence location of death. We examined .
  • WinUtilities Professional Edition 15.7 Download - Crack Key For U Hub microRNAs and genes in the development of atrial fibrillation identified by weighted gene co-expression network analysis
    BMC Medical Genomics (IF 3.063) Pub Date : 2021-11-15 ,DOI:10.1186/s12920-021-01124-5
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       Co-expression network may contribute to better understanding molecular interaction patterns underlying cellular processes. To explore microRNAs (miRNAs) expression patterns correlated with AF, we performed weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) based on the dataset GSE28954. Thereafter, we predicted target genes using experimentally verified databases (ENOCRI, miRTarBase, and Tarbase) .
  • The m6A RNA Modification Modulates Gene Expression and Fibrosis-Related Pathways in Hypertrophic Scar
    Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology (IF 6.684) Pub Date : 2021-11-15 ,DOI:10.3389/fcell.2021.748703
    Si-Yu Liu, Jun-Jie Wu, Zhong-hua Chen, Ming-Li Zou, Ying-ying Teng, Kai-Wen Zhang, Yue-Yue Li, Dang-yang Guo, Feng-Lai Yuan
    Purpose: To systematically analyze the overall m6A modification pattern in hyperplastic scars (HS). Methods: The m6A modification patterns in HS and normal skin (NS) tissues were described by m6A sequencing and RNA sequencing, and subsequently bioinformatics analysis was performed. The m6A-related RNA was immunoprecipitated and verified by real-time quantitative PCR. Results: The appearance of 14,791 .
  • Selenite Capture by MIL-101 (Fe) through Fe-O-Se Bonds at Free Coordination Fe Sites
    Journal of Hazardous Materials (IF 10.588) Pub Date : 2021-11-12 ,DOI:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.127715
    Xiaoliang Zhao, Jian Zhao, Yuanyuan Sun, Huan Ouyang, Ning Chen, Jun Ren, Yue Li, Shuai Chen, Dongjiang Yang, Baoshan Xing
    Selective immobilization of SeO32− is highly desired for the remediation of Se-contaminated water. Thus, the irreversible sorption of SeO32− ions by adsorbents through unique coordination bonds with high affinity is needed. Herein, we demonstrated that Fe-based metal-organic framework (MOF) (Fe-MIL-101) with free coordination sites (FCSs) enabled selective and irreversible capture of SeO32− ions from .
  • Patient delay in a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Tianjin, China from January to February 2020
    Journal of the Formosan Medical Association (IF 3.282) Pub Date : 2021-11-11 ,DOI:10.1016/j.jfma.2021.11.003
    Chunxia Cao, Yue Li, Shaobo Fu, Yongzhong Zhang, Ning Li, Shike Hou, Haojun Fan
    Background Patient delay of COVID-19 patients occurs frequently, which poses a challenge to the overall epidemic situation. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the extent of patient delay, explore its factors, and investigate the effects of patient interval on epidemic situation. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted with 136 COVID-19 patients in Tianjin, China. Factors associated with .
  • MXD3 as an Immunological and Prognostic Factor From Pancancer Analysis
    Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences (IF 5.246) Pub Date : 2021-11-11 ,DOI:10.3389/fmolb.2021.702206
    Xiaoyu Zhang, Xiaoqin He, Yue Li, Yangtao Xu, Wenliang Chen, Xin Liu, Xinyao Hu, Lin Xiong, Ximing Xu Honeycam Crack Keygen Key - Free Activators
    norton safe search toolbar - Crack Key For U MAX dimerization protein 3 (MXD3), a transcriptional regulator of the MXD3 superfamily, is a part of the MYC–MAX–MXD network. However, its role in tumors has been reported in several cancers, such as B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, medulloblastoma, neuroblastoma, and glioblastoma. Based on TCGA and GEO data, our first pancancer study of MXD3 confirmed the high expression of MXD3 in cancer tissues .
  • CRP, SAA, LDH, and DD predict poor prognosis of coronavirus disease (COVID-19): a meta-analysis from 7739 patients
    Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation (IF 1.713) Pub Date : 2021-11-11 ,DOI:10.1080/00365513.2021.2000635
    Lin Wang, Lu Ming Yang, Sheng Fei Pei, Ying Zhi Chong, Yu Guo, Xue Lei Gao, Qin Yan Tang, Yue Li, Fu Min Feng
    Abstract Understanding factors associated with disease severity and mortality from coronavirus disease (COVID-19) was critical for effective risk stratification. We aimed to investigate the association between biomarkers of clinical laboratory tests, including serum C-reactive protein (CRP), serum amyloid protein (SAA), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and D-dimer (DD) and poor prognosis of COVID-19. We .
  • The discovery of 1, 3-diamino-7H-pyrrol[3, 2-f]quinazoline compounds as potent antimicrobial antifolates
    European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry (IF 6.514) Pub Date : 2021-11-11 ,DOI:10.1016/j.ejmech.2021.113979
    Yue Li, Yifan Ouyang, Han Wu, Peng Wang, Yu Huang, Xue Li, Hongtong Chen, Yu Sun, Xinxin Hu, Xiukun Wang, Guoqing Li, Yun Lu, Congran Li, Xi Lu, Jing Pang, Tongying Nie, Xiaohong Sang, Luyao Dong, Xuefu You
    The shortage of new antibiotics makes infections caused by gram-negative (G−) bacteria a significant clinical problem. The key enzymes involved in folate biosynthesis represent important targets for drug discovery, and new antifolates with novel mechanisms are urgently needed. By targeting to dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), a series of 1,3-diamino-7H-pyrrol[3,2-f]quinazoline (PQZ) compounds were designed .
  • Phosphoprotein Phosphatase 1 but Not 2A Activity Modulates Coupled-Clock Mechanisms to Impact on Intrinsic Automaticity of Sinoatrial Nodal Pacemaker Cells
    Cells (IF 6.6) Pub Date : 2021-11-10 ,DOI:10.3390/cells10113106
    Syevda Tagirova Sirenko, Ihor Zahanich, Yue Li, Yevgeniya O. Lukyanenko, Alexey E. Lyashkov, Bruce D. Ziman, Kirill V. Tarasov, Antoine Younes, Daniel R. Riordon, Yelena S. Tarasova, Dongmei Yang, Tatiana M. Vinogradova, Victor A. Maltsev, Edward G. Lakatta
       Spontaneous AP (action potential) firing of sinoatrial nodal cells (SANC) is critically dependent on protein kinase A (PKA) and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent protein phosphorylation, which are required for the generation of spontaneous, diastolic local Ca2+ releases (LCRs). Although phosphoprotein phosphatases (PP) regulate protein phosphorylation, the expression level .
  • Mooreocrinus liaoi sp. nov. (Crinoidea, Echinodermata) from the Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous) Outangdi Formation in Zhejiang, South China Block
    Geological Journal (IF 2.489) Pub Date : 2021-11-09 ,DOI:10.1002/gj.4311
    Yingyan Mao, Yuandong Liu, Qijian Li, Yue Li, Jianfang Zhang, Stephen Kershaw
    A new crinoid species of the Order Cladida, Mooreocrinus liaoi Mao and Li sp. nov., is described from the Pennsylvanian (Upper Carboniferous) Outangdi Formation in Jiangshan, Zhejiang Province, representing the first record of Mooreocrinus Wright and Strimple, 1945 in China. The presence of Mooreocrinus in the South China Block extends the palaeogeographical record of this genus and indicates it to PDF Shaper Crack Download - Crack Key For U . eraser download - Activators Patch
  • High-Performance Aqueous Zn Battery Based on MoS2-Loaded MnO2–x@Carbon Aerogel
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (IF 6.475) Pub Date : 2021-11-09 ,DOI:10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c03177
    Tie Li, Yue Li, Wenbing Gong, Shen Yuan, Ju Bai, Shenzhao Li, Yuchen Tian, Yingyi Wang, Yuanyuan Bai, Ting Zhang
    The MnO2-based aqueous Zn cell can meet the requirements of safety, flexibility, and low cost for portable/wearable electronics; however, its low intrinsic conductivity, weak kinetics, and poor high-loading capacity restrict its practical performance. In this study, the synergistic architecture of MoS2-loaded, oxygen-defect-rich MnO2–x nanocrystals with a carbon coating (M-PM2–x-H2 aerogel) was prepared .
  • FGFR3 Destabilizes PD-L1 Via NEDD4 to Control T Cell-Mediated Bladder Cancer Immune Surveillance
    Cancer Research (IF 12.701) Pub Date : 2021-11-09 Honeycam 3.07 Crack Serial Key - Free Activators
    Weiqiang Jing, Ganyu Wang, Zhiwei Cui, Gaozhong Xiong, Xin Jiang, Yue Li, Wushan Li, Bo Han, Shouzhen Chen, Benkang Shi
    Fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) is frequently activated by mutation or overexpression, and it is a validated therapeutic target in urothelial carcinoma (UC) of the bladder. However, the role and detailed molecular mechanism of FGFR3 in the immune microenvironment of bladder cancer remain largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that inhibition of FGFR3 in FGFR3-activated bladder cancer elevates .
  • Genome-Wide Analysis of CCT Transcript Factors to Identify Genes Contributing to Photoperiodic Flowering in Oryza rufipogon
    Frontiers in Plant Science (IF 5.753) Pub Date : 2021-11-08 ,DOI:10.3389/fpls.2021.736419
    Xin Peng, Win Tun, Shuang-feng Dai, Jia-yue Li, Qun-jie Zhang, Guo-ying Yin, Jinmi Yoon, Lae-hyeon Cho, Gynheung An, Li-zhi Gao
    Photoperiod sensitivity is a dominant determinant for the phase transition in cereal crops. CCT (CONSTANS, CO-like, and TOC1) transcription factors (TFs) are involved in many physiological functions including the regulation of the photoperiodic flowering. However, the functional roles of CCT TFs have not been elucidated in the wild progenitors of crops. In this study, we identified 41 CCT TFs, including .
  • Effects of emotional faces on working memory in adolescents with learning anxiety
    Current Psychology (IF 4.297) Pub Date : 2021-11-06 ,DOI:10.1007/s12144-021-02469-x macrium reflect professional license key - Free Activators
    Shen, Yue, Li, Zhaocong, Shao, Man, Liu, Yingwei, Zhang, Yiyun
    Previous studies on working memory processing characteristics of anxious people have focused more on effects of trait than state anxiety, especially the processing characteristics of working memory under emotional faces. Learning anxiety not only affects teenagers’ learning but also their life and overall personality development. This is the first study to examine adolescents with learning anxiety .
  • The regulation of CPNE1 ubiquitination by the NEDD4L is involved in the pathogenesis of non-small cell lung cancer
    Cell Death Discovery (IF 5.241) Pub Date : 2021-11-06 ,DOI:10.1038/s41420-021-00736-1
    Ruochen Zhang, Weijie Zhang, Yuanyuan Zeng, Yue Li, Jieqi Zhou, Yang Zhang, Anqi Wang, Yantian Lv, Jianjie Zhu, Zeyi Liu, Jian-an Huang
       Our previous studies revealed that oncogene CPNE1 is positively correlated with the occurrence, TNM stage, lymph node metastasis, and distant metastasis of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and it could be regulated by micro RNAs. But no direct role of post-translational modification of CPNE1 in NSCLC has been reported. This study confirms that CPNE1 is degraded by two pathways: the ubiquitin-proteasome .
  • Optimal Excitation Wavelength for Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy: The Role of Chemical Interface Damping
    The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters (IF 6.475) Pub Date : 2021-11-05 ,DOI:10.1021/acs.jpclett.1c03535
    Shuyi Zhu, Haoming Bao, Hongwen Zhang, Hao Fu, Qian Zhao, Le Zhou, Yue Li, Weiping Cai
    The optimal excitation wavelength (OEW) for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is generally close to that of the local surface plasmon resonance (LSPR). In some cases, however, the OEW is significantly longer than that of the observed LSPR. Its origin is still unclear and controversial. Here, we propose a chemical interface damping (CID)-based mechanism and reveal the origin of the OEW’s deviation .
  • Optimization and analysis of the acoustic and resistance performance of the plenum chamber via sample entropy and large eddy simulation
    Building and Environment (IF 6.456) Pub Date : 2021-11-05 ,DOI:10.1016/j.buildenv.2021.108545
    Chi Zhang, Angui Li, Jiaxing Li, Haimeng Li, Yue Li, Jing Xiong, Wenchao Lv, Jigang Che, Jinnan Guo, Xiaoya Zhang
    The noise of the plenum chamber plays an important role in the acoustic performance evaluation of ventilation and air condition (VAC) systems. The large eddy simulation (LES) model and Ffowcs Williams & Hawkings (FW–H) equation were used to obtain the transient flow and aerodynamic noise, respectively, and a continuous and uniform impedance boundary condition was introduced to calculate the transmission .

共有6354个结果符合您的查询条件,只显示了前300个,请优化您的查询条件,以获取更精确的结果。

Источник: https://www.x-mol.com/paper/search/byFaculty/236874

Contemporary Dental Ceramic Materials, A Review: Chemical Composition, Physical and Mechanical Properties, Indications for Use

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ICA2010: 20th International Congress on Acoustics, ICA 2010
Venue, Location, Date

Table of Contents

    • 10 General acoustics, education
    • 101ss Education
    • 20 General linear acoustics
    • 25 Nonlinear acoustics
    • 28 Aeroacoustics and atmospheric sound
    • 30 Underwater sound
    • 3001ss Underwater sound transducers
    • 3002ss Underwater sound propagation
    • 3003ss Underwater sound effect on marine life
    • 35 Ultrasonics, quantum acoustics, and physical effects of sound
    • 3501ss Sonoprocessing
    • 3502ss Sonochemistry and Sonoluminescence
    • 3503ss Bubbles on biomedical and industrial surfaces
    • 3504ss Geophysical and engineering bubble acoustics
    • 3505ss Medical bubble acoustics
    • 3506ss High Intensity Focused Ultrasound (HIFU) and its application in medicine
    • 3507ss Micro/Nanofluidics and Actuation
    • 3508ss Thermoacoustics
    • 3509ss Non-medical Imaging and Ultrasonic Measurement Techniques
    • 3510ss Mack Breazeale Memorial Session
    • 38 Measurement, Generation and reproduction of sound
    • 40 Structural acoustics and vibration
    • 4001ss Theoretical and computational acoustics
    • 50 Noise: its effects and control
    • 5001ss Environmental Noise Management
    • 5003ss Road transportation noise
    • 5004ss Aircraft noise
    • 5005ss Wind farm noise
    • 5008ss Health effects of noise
    • 5010ss Occupational noise
    • 5011ss Vehicle noise and vibration
    • 5012ss Rail transport noise and vibration
    • 5015ss Military Noise
    • 55 Architectural acoustics
      • Acoustic study of the Society of Jesus Church. Characterization by means of objective and subjective parameters
      • Using an ambisonic microphone for measurement of the diffuse state in a reverberant room
      • A new system of speech privacy criteria in terms of Speech Privacy Class (SPC) values
      • Sound propagation in performance halls with balconies
      • Taiwan green building material labelling system and its sound insulating assessment
      • Investigating room acoustics using higher order ambisonics and perceptual evaluation of ambisonic auralization techniques
      • Improving the acoustic for classical musicians
      • Acoustical effects of columns, beams and furniture on sound fields in small enclosures
      • The acoustics of ancient Iranian music room at "Aali Ghapoo"
      • Acoustical measurements in occupied rooms in Paris
      • Optimal design of slit resonators for acoustic normal mode control in rectangular rooms
      • A review of the current role of acoustics in sustainability: The contrast of different rating tools, codes and standards
      • Measurement and optimization of background noise and reverberation for a meeting room
      • Phase coherence as a measure of acoustic quality: Part 1, The neural mechanism
      • Phase coherence as a measure of acoustic quality: Honeycam 3.07 Crack Serial Key - Free Activators 2, Audience engagement
      • Phase coherence as a measure of acoustic quality: Part 3, Concert hall design
      • The Lindeman Hall of Oslo ― Evidence of low-frequency radiation from the stage floor
      • Restoration of the Bell Pavilion for King Song-Dok Bell considering its acoustic characteristics
      • An acoustic investigation into small auditorium in Indonesia
      • Architectural categories and acoustic characteristics of traditional Chinese theatres
      • A new miniature loudspeaker for room acoustical scale model experiment
      • Quantitative evaluation of three-dimensional shape of auditorium using elliptic Fourier descriptors
      • Effects of stage design elements on acoustics of concert halls
      • Effects of sound strength and IACC on perception of listener envelopment in concert halls
      • Simulation of the aperture diffraction in coupled rooms by acoustical radiosity
      • Study on effect of room acoustics on timbral brightness of clarinet tones. Part I: subjective evaluation through a listening experiment
      • Effect of sound absorption on indoor sound environment of nursery school classrooms
      • Evaluation of stage support for musician's performance in a concert hall
      • Acoustics of the concert hall at the Sydney Opera House, Part two: The Acoustician's Perspective
      • A new type of porous absorber
      • Room acoustics in rehearsal rooms and public areas in the new Norwegian National Opera House
      • A study of sound absorption characteristics on air layer with irregular shape
      • The optimum initial delay time of Angklung Musics in an Angklung concert hall
      • A coherent image source method for flat waveguides with locally reacting boundaries
      • Numerical investigation on the sound absorption coefficients of Malaysian wood
      • Acoustic description of the Great Hall of the Moscow P.I.Tchaikovsky Conservatory
      • A proposal for a tool for automatic correction of geometrical errors in acoustical simulation
      • Effect of microperforation on sound insulation of double-leaf structures
      • Predictions of road traffic noise on residential balconies using a specular & diffusion model
      • Acoustical characteristics of newly developed perforated plates
      • Study on an estimation method for parameters of a dry laminated panel
      • Sound environmental design in nursery institutions focused on floor material
      • Control of sound insulation in glass facades at Oslo's Opera House
      • Designing small music practice rooms for sound quality
      • Contoured foam absorbers
      • Teatro di San Carlo, Naples, restoration and enlargement: Conservation of the excellent acoustics in the oldest active opera house in Europe
      • Sound absorption characterisation of woven materials. Case study: auditorium restoration
      • Optimal architectural configurations and acoustic parameters for multiple sources.
      • Examining the relationships between monaural and binaural classroom acoustics parameters and student achievement
      • Green rating systems and classroom acoustic design
      • Integrated lighting luminaire-acoustics diffusor for classroom
      • Comparison between measured and simulated binaural impulse responses in different rooms
      • Study on wooden micro-perforated panel and its application
      • Reverberation time - The mother of all room acoustical parameters
      • Room acoustical parameter values at the listener's ears - can preferred concert hall acoustics be predicted and explained?
      • Effects of the sound source direction on acoustical parameters in a church
      • Evaluation of a hard-walled rectangular room model with planar absorption cavities
      • Acoustical design of inner galleries in Heydar Aliyev Center
      • Basic study on acoustic wave analysis by the multi-moment method using interpolation by a high-order polynomial
      • Acoustic characterization of sacred music rendered by a human whistle at the Divine Providence Church in Goa, India
      • Acoustics of the concert hall at the Sydney Opera House, Part one: A Client's Perspective
      • Reflection of sound by concave surfaces
      • Effect of experimental design on the results of clarity-index just-noticeable-difference listening tests
      • A numerical investigation of the sound intensity field in rooms by using diffusion theory and particle tracing
      • Error and uncertainty of IACC measurements introduced by dummy head orientation using Monte Carlo simulations
      • Characterization of non-exponential sound energy decays in multiple coupled volumes
      • Reverberation times prediction on classroom using neural network model
    • 5501ss Sound transmission in lightweight structures
    • 58 Acoustical measurements and instrumentation
    • 60 Acoustic signal processing
    • 64 Physiological acoustics
    • 6401ss Hearing Rehabilitation
    • 66 Psychological acoustics
    • 6601ss Psychoacoustics from ecological viewpoints
    • 6603ss Soundscapes
    • 6605ss Virtual Sound/Displays
    • 70 Speech production
    • 71 Speech perception
    • 7101ss Acquisition of Speech Perception Skills
    • 72 Speech processing and communication systems
    • 75 Music and musical instruments
    • 80 Bioacoustics
    • 8001 Animal Bioacoustics
    • 8002 Medical Bioacoustics
    • Plenary Dist Special

All rights reserved. Permission is granted for any person to reproduce a part of any abstract provided that the permission is obtained from the author(s) and credit is given to the author(s) and these conference proceedings.


Support Mathematics Summer Schools for acoustics researcher training

Attenborough, Keith

Department of Design, Development, Environment and Materials, The Open University, UK

ABSTRACT
Mathematical methods are important for research in many aspects of acoustics. Currently, fundamental mathematical methodologies taught at undergraduate level are often advanced through independent learning by individual researchers. They develop their mathematical skills as appropriate rather than being made aware of the potential of advanced mathematical tools at the onset of their research career. Furthermore, most researchers in acoustics do not have access to master level courses to broaden their postgraduate study. Attempts to remedy this in the UK were made through summer schools held in 2003, 2005 and 2007 at Southampton and Salford Universities in the UK. The content and timetable planning, recruitment and student feedback from these Schools are reported together with general conclusions about their performance.

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The delivery of noise and vibration study material and real life practice

Groothoff, Beno

Environmental Directions, Brisbane, Australia

ABSTRACT
Presenting workshops, lectures and seminars on noise and vibration over the last 20 years has given the author an insight into the effectiveness of the ‘taking on board and putting into practice' of the material studied by the participants. It has also demonstrated the need for constantly updating the study material to keep the presented material relevant and meaningful for the changing audiences. The inclusion of case studies enhances students' involvement and problem solving skills. The advancement of computer technology has made it possible to make the presentations more realistic by incorporating case studies by using audio and video of noise and its effects into power point presentations to which students and other participants can relate. Despite these advancements in study material delivery, in real life basic mistakes, which should not happen, are being observed regularly when it comes to noise assessment. This is particularly true with the use of noise dose meters and, to a lesser extent, the use of sound level meters. Basic mistakes include for noise dose meters the setting-up, attachment and removal of the instrument and for sound level meters not recording where the measurement was made and not obtaining additional information e.g. about the activities and exposure duration.

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Problem based learning in acoustics at Aalborg University

Hammershøi, Dorte Ordoñez, Rodrigo Christensen, FlemmingNielsen, Sofus Birkedal

Acoustics, Aalborg University, Denmark

ABSTRACT
The master program in Acoustics (M. Sc.) from Aalborg University is taught at the Department of Electronic system. The M. Sc. program consists of three semesters with course units and problem based project work organized in groups, and a final semester for a master thesis. During the first three semesters, the learning objectives are distributed between courses with independent examination, and a semester project. Each semester has a theme the projects must comply with. Either supervisors, students or industry propose the problem that become the basis for the project work. Under supervision, the students narrow down the problem, address possible solutions, and typically implement one or more of the options for further evaluation. The courses supplement the project work by adding specific and general knowledge of the subject areas of each semester. The courses either have direct application in the project work, or are defining for the candidate’s professional profile. This presentation gives an overview of Problem Based Learning organized in groups in the M. Sc. in Acoustics program of Aalborg University. Examples of projects and course activities are presented to illustrate the relation and interaction between course and project work.

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A viscoelastic figure model of tongue for understanding speech articulation

Hirayama, Makoto J.

Kanazawa Institute of Technology, Ishikawa, Japan

ABSTRACT
Speech is a physiological signal which is generated by muscular motions of lung, vocal cords, larynx, jaw, tongue, and lips. Coordinated articulatory movements of these organs are so complex that they are difficult to be understood by either students or professionals. Especially for tongue, anatomical structures and functions are well studied but speech articulatory movements can be said that they are still under investigations.

To help understanding tongue shape and motions, I made a figure model of tongue using viscoelastic material of urethane rubber gel in the following procedure. At first, a cast of tongue is formed by baking clay which is hardened by heating. The shape of tongue is decided with multiple references of anatomy books, MRI images, educational models, and our real tongues. Next, I made a mold with silicon. Then, I molded and duplicated the figure model with urethane rubber gel. The model includes internal and external tongue muscles, although the current version is made as a whole shape model of tongue body consisting of combined muscles.

Compared to the current materials used in speech science education, such as drawings, pictures, videos, or human body models, the catalyst browse free tongue figure model is useful for understanding three dimensional tongue shape and internal and external tongue muscles' positions and motions, too. Because students can hold and touch the realistic tongue model and make it move and deform by pushing and pulling this viscoelastic tongue body. Pictures and explanatory texts do not make sense but the proposed model can help for students to understand anatomical structures and functions of speech articulation intuitively. From questionnaires from students in a speech science seminar, it is founded that the proposed model is an effective tool for understanding speech articulation. It can be applied not only to teach speech science, but also to elucidate speech articulation by scientists and engineers, and also to develop a tongue actuator for speaking robots.

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Case study of curriculum development for technical listening training for employees of an acoustic related company

Kawahara, Kazuhiko (1)Ito, Toshihiro (2)Kobayashi, Tetsu (3)Iwamiya, Shin-ichiro (1)Takada, Masayuki (1)

(1) Faculty of Design, Kyushu University, Japan (2) Yamaha Corporation, Japan (3) Yamaha Business Support Corporation, Japan

ABSTRACT
This is a case study of curriculum development for technical listening training. Technical listening training is a systematic education program designed to allow prospective acoustic engineers and sound designers to enhance their auditory sensitivity. Authors established a training strategy in an acoustics related company; Yamaha Corporation. We re-organized existing, and developed new, curricula for a training suite for company employees. Discrimination, level difference identification and frequency identification training were classified as 'beginners training'. Identification of reverberation time and some application specific training were classified for 'expert PC Cleaner Pro Free Activate. The company successfully conducted 9 days of training for freshman engineers. Trainee learning curves showed auditory sensitivity was improved.

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EAA Summer Schools

Maffei, L. (1)Vorländer, Michael (2)Svensson, P. (3)Jambrosic, K. (4)

(1) 2nd University of Naples, Italy (2) RWTH Aachen University, Germany (3) NTNU Trondheim, Norway (4) University of Zagreb, Croatia

ABSTRACT
EAA Summer Schools are an integral part of the Young Acousticians Programme in the European Acoustics Association. They consist of various courses on advanced level, taught by internationally recognized and distinguished experts in Acoustics, and they are integrated into a European regional conference. Furthermore, structured sessions of the conference are related to the summer school courses, thus connecting basic lectures to keynotes and other invited papers on advanced topics. Those sessions are co-chaired one experienced expert and one young acoustician, typically a doctoral student. The first EAA Summer School will be held in Ljubljana, Slovenia, with short courses on Soundscapes, Voice and Musical Acoustics, Building Acoustics, Hydroacoustics, Numerical Methods, Psychoacoustics and Ultrasound. In the presentation we will illustrate the background and the motivation of this initiative. Content, organization and future plans of integration in the European higher education in acoustics will be discussed.

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Integral curriculum on noise control in Spain: a cooperative task

Romeu, J.Genesca, M. Pamies, T.

Acoustical and Mechanical Engineering Laboratory (LEAM), Technical University of Catalonia, Spain

ABSTRACT
Since the European Directive on Environmental Noise 2002/49 came into effect requiring strategic agglomeration and infrastructure noise maps to be made, the demand on environmental acoustics knowledge has been boosted in Spain. Currently several groups and companies are available to carry out noise surveys and pointing out the noise causes in different streets or areas of a city. However, a second stage is starting now: once the noise causes are identified, control noise techniques needs to be applied. This fact is supported in the Spanish adaptation of this regulation known as Ley del Ruido (2003) that states that noise control techniques should be applied to minimize the acoustic emission of municipal work activities, municipal devices, infrastructures, road workThis means that a demand on noise control knowledge is arising. This knowledge is scarcely provided in the bachelor degrees currently available in Spain, but there are some master degrees focussed in acoustics. However, it is difficult to find an institution that can cover all the topics needed for a complete Acoustics curriculum. This work analyses the feasibility of creating an integral curriculum in noise control involving different Spanish research groups in order to take benefit of the expertise of each one to cover the legal and industrial needs of Acoustics knowledge. In that way, the teaching effort would be optimized and the appropriate facilities would be available, however funds would be necessary for the mobility of teachers and students.

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Distance learning program for professional career in acoustics

Stead, Matthew (1)Burgess, Marion (2)

(1) AECOM, Adelaide, SA, Australia (2) Acoustics and Vibration Unit, UNSW@ADFA, Canberra, Australia

ABSTRACT
Acoustical consulting companies frequently face the need to employ staff but find that, while there may be very good applicants with engineering and science backgrounds there are few that have any experience in acoustics. Larger consultancies can provide 'in-house' training but this is a strain on resources and smaller consultancies do not have this capacity. Any course available via the formal university system may not be available at a suitable time or location. A flexible distance learning program of study, based on the UK Institute of Acoustics Diploma, has been developed as a short course and managed via the university. A key feature of this program is that there is no need for the registrants to attend any central location at any time during the program. The early experiences with implementing the program have been influenced by the continued interest and support from the senior, experienced acoustical consultants. In this paper we will discuss the structure and experiences in the implementation of this fully flexible distance learning program.

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Identification, classification and acquisition of sounds for spatial orientation and mobility training of blind and visually impaired persons

Tomaszewski, Franciszek (1)Czechyra, Bartosz (1)Skrodzka, Ewa (2)

(1) Institute of Combustion Engines and Transportation, Division of Rail Vehicles, Poznan University of Technology, Poznan, Poland (2) Institute of Acoustics, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan, Poland

ABSTRACT
Teaching and training of spatial orientation and mobility (SOM) is an important element of their education. Despite progress in supporting equipment technology and study on spatial orientation, blind people use still old, not always effective methods. Therefore, a method of SOM training based on environmental sounds may be a huge step in "opening" a surrounding world for them. The method will be a supplement, not a substitution, of a popular orientation method based on a white cane. A basic tool for the method is ‘a library of sound events and vibrations'. In the library both vibration and acoustic signals, which may be helpful or disturbing for SOM are collected as well as specific sounds of places and objects, which are often visited by persons with disabilities of sight. In the first step an identification of necessary signals was done, i.e. a questionnaire about various aspects of signals helping/disturbing spatial orientation was administered to blind and visually impaired. In the next step potential signals for recording were classified according to estimated level of teaching. Next, signals were recorded using artificial head or in-the-ear microphones at the attitude of 1.6 m and 0.9 m. A survey of collected signals and their classification will be presented.

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Workshop on advanced room acoustic prediction modelling

Wenmaekers, R. H. C. (1)van Hout, N. H. A. M. (1)van Luxemburg, L. C. J. (1)Rindel, J. H. (2)

(1) Level Acoustics, Eindhoven, The Netherlands (2) Odeon, Lyngby, Denmark

ABSTRACT
The use of acoustic 3D modelling software has become increasingly popular among acousticians. Some software developers offer introduction courses for starting users. However, there is a need for more advanced courses for experienced modellers. Such a course should not only consist of lectures with the scientific background of the model, but should also give room for sharing practical experience so one can learn from one another. In this context a master class on room acoustic prediction modelling has taken place in January 2010. A significant part of this master class consisted of a modelling workshop. By working on an assignment in small groups participants were stimulated to discuss ideas and exchange knowledge.

The workshop was divided into four different parts, each part carefully tuned to the theoretical lectures in between. The workshop assignment was to compare predicted room acoustical parameters with measurement results concerning reverberation and speech intelligibility in an open plan office. Also an auralisation had to be made using multiple sound sources. The open plan office of the Laboratorium voor Akoestiek of Eindhoven University of Technology where the workshop took place served as an interesting modelling object. This avid media composer 8.9crack mac - Free Activators was interesting for educational reasons, since the participants were inside the room, as well as for acoustical reasons, because it consists of two coupled volumes, many details like furniture and a wide range of different materials.

In this paper the assignment will be elucidated and the results will be presented. The response of the participants and the experience of the master showed that a workshop is an indispensible part of master classes in the field of room acoustics.

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Acoustic education: Experiments for off-campus teaching and learning

Wild, GrahamSwan, Geoff

School of Engineering, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, WA, Australia

ABSTRACT
In undergraduate Physics and Engineering courses on acoustics, experiments typically involve the use of a Digital Storage Oscilloscope (DSO) and a Function Generator (FG). These relatively expensive and bulky pieces of bench top equipment make it prohibitive for external, distance, or off-campus students to be involved in experimental work, without attending a residential school. However, there is a growing demand, particularly from the Engineering sector, for courses to be more available remotely. To that end, Edith Cowan University is investigating the possibility of remote laboratory programs, which can be completed by off-campus students to ensure their Applied Physics or Engineering knowledge, is balanced by experimental experience. In this work, we show the implementation of a computer based DSO and FG, using the computers sound card. Here the PCs microphone jack is used as the DSO input, and the speaker jack is used as the FG output. In an effort to reduce the cost of implementing the experiment, we examine software available for free online. A small number of applications were compared in terms of their interface and func-tionality, for both the DSO and FG. The software system was then used to conduct a number of acoustics experiments relevant to undergraduate Physics and Engineering. These experiments include, the Physics of Music, Standing Waves in Pipes, and the Properties of Sound Waves. There are two primary benefits to the computer based system developed. The first is in terms of the enhancement to learning by students at the undergraduate level, where the knowledge learnt by off-campus students can be significantly improved with the use of practical experimental work. Secondly, remote experiments could provide additional components of laboratory work for students in on-campus subjects where resource issues are making traditional and comprehensive supervised laboratory programs hard to maintain.

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Left-handed elastic shear and longitudinal elastic waves in 2D phononic crystals made of a solid matrix

Croënne, Charles (1,3)Hladky-Hennion, Anne-Christine (1,3)Vasseur, Jérôme (1,3)Bavencoffe, Maxime (1,2,3)Tinel, Alain (2,3)Morvan, Bruno (2,3)Dubus, Bertrand (1,3)

(1) IEMN dpt ISEN, UMR CNRS 8520, Lille, France (2) LOMC, FRE CNRS 3102, Le Havre, France (3) FANO, FR CNRS 3110, France

ABSTRACT
Waves propagating in left-handed materials have unusual properties such as phase and group velocities of opposite signs and negative refraction index. Periodic lattices have been shown to exhibit such properties both for electromagnetic (photonic Honeycam 3.07 Crack Serial Key - Free Activators and in-fluid acoustic (phononic crystals) waves. This work addresses the question of the existence of left handed elastic waves in phononic crystals. Two-dimensional phononic crystals made of square lattices of cylindrical cavities or inclusions in a solid matrix are considered. Dispersion curves are computed using plane wave expansion method for real wave vectors in the Brillouin zone and finite element method for complex wavenumbers along a specific propagation direction. From these results, the existence and symmetry of the left-handed propagation mode in the phononic crystal is discussed and its relationship with lattice geometry and constitutive materials is analyzed.

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Diffraction of bulk waves on phononic crystals

Herbison, Sarah W. (1)Declercq, Nico F. (1)Moiseyenko, Rayisa (1,2)Laude, Vincent (2)

(1) UMI Georgia Tech, George W. Woodruff School of Mechanical Engineering, Metz-Technopole, France (2) Institut FEMTO-ST, Université de Franche-Comté, Besançon, France

ABSTRACT
Phononic crystals have attracted much research interest in the last decade due to their unique properties (band gaps, etc.) and potential applications in acoustic filtering and novel transducer design, among others. Many studies have examined the acoustic wave propagation that occurs inside (infinite) phononic crystals. However, in order for phononic crystals to find application in actual devices, they must be of finite size and the diffraction that may occur on the surface of the crystal becomes important. This work presents the results of experiments performed on a 2D phononic crystal consisting of steel cylinders in a water matrix. The diffraction of bulk waves that occurs on the exterior surface of the crystal will be examined, and the surface of the crystal will be shown to function as an acoustic diffraction grating. In addition, angular scans of the diffracted fields will examine the possibility of surface wave generation along the exterior surface of the crystal. It is expected that these results will contribute to a better understanding of finite-size phononic crystals and aid in the development of devices employing such crystals.

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Composite square and monomial power sweeps for SNR customization in acoustic measurements

Huszty, Csaba (1)Sakamoto, Shinichi (2)

(1) Graduate School, The University of Tokyo, Japan (2) Institute of Industrial Science, The University of Tokyo, Japan

ABSTRACT
Swept signals for acoustic measurements are widely used nowadays to obtain impulse responses of the system under test. The overall spectrum and the inverse filter that compresses the sweep into an impulse together with the background noise conditions prescribe the result's signal-noise ratio as a function of frequency. This paper proposes a time-domain sweep synthesis method using composite square and monomial power function modulated sine sweeps that can customize the resulting SNR-frequency function. Theoretical and practical aspects as well as measurement results are presented.

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Research on acoustic source positioning method for boiler tube leakage

Jiang, Genshan (1)Wang, Lin (1)Tian, Jing (2)Pan, Jie Avira Prime License key North China Electric Power University, P.R.China (2) State Key Laboratory of Acoustics, Academia Sinica, (3) University of Western Australia, WA, Australia

ABSTRACT
In this paper, by considering the shortcomings of the current boiler pipeline leak monitoring system, a method to perfect the features of location function in the system by using multi-microphones array passive source localization techniques is presented. A model of 660MW boiler is taken for example to simulate the location results for different positions of the leak source location in the furnace of the boiler's body. Additionally, there have been given out the analysis of the effect factors, which included the effect of sound wave propagation through a combustion temperature-field inside a boiler and the reverberation factors caused by the close feature of the boiler, and then the location results of leakages source have been amended from the original results accordingly. And the conclusion is that the combustion temperature gradient field would impact more apparently on the location results of the leakage. Works in this paper may provide some reference for ideas to scolars who studied aspect to this topic.

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Wave propagation interaction in anisotropic piezoelectric porous layer loaded with fluid

Khurana, Poonam Lauriks, Walter

Laboratorium voor Akoestiek en Thermische Fysica, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Heverlee, Belgium

ABSTRACT
Piezoelectric materials have been acting as very important functional components in sonar projectors, fluid monitors, pulse generators and surface acoustic wave devices. Moreover, piezoelectric materials have been integrated with the structural systems to form a class of smart structures and embedded as layers or fibers into multifunctional composites. Much of the interest in the subject of electro-acoustic waves is directed towards the applications in the areas of signal processing, transduction and frequency control, where transmission and reflection of acoustic energy at surfaces play an important role. In this article, the wave propagation in porous piezoelectric materials is studied. First, Christoffel equation for plane harmonic waves propagating in porous piezoelectric materials is derived. Solutions for the Christoffel equation are obtained and then those are used to study the reflection-transmission phenomenon in anisotropic piezoelectric layer which is loaded with fluid on both sides. The study finds its applications in various fields such as medical ultrasonic imaging devices, underwater sonar detectors, oil reservoir monitoring.


Cylindrical harmonic expansion of the sound field due to a rotating line source

Poletti, Mark A.

Industrial Research Limited, Wellington, New Zealand

ABSTRACT
The motion of an acoustic source relative to some fixed frame produces a Doppler shifting of the source frequency at a fixed point relative to that frame. For linear motion of the source greater than the speed of sound, the radiated sound forms a shock wave whose angle relative to the direction of motion varies with source speed. Some applications in acoustics involve a sound source rotating around a fixed point in space. For example, in surround sound systems, it may be desirable to generate the sound due to a sound source which moves around the listener. As another example, the Leslie speaker is a rotating loudspeaker system designed to produce amplitude and frequency modulation effects. In aeroacoustics, the noise produced by rotating propellers or rotors is of interest and the linear wave equation solution for a rotating source has some relevance. The description of rotating sources also has applicability in other disciplines such as electromagnetism and astronomy.

This paper develops a cylindrical harmonic expansion for the sound field produced by a rotating line source. The expansion has a simple form and reverts to the standard expression for a fixed line source when the rotation speed is zero. For rotational speeds where the source is supersonic, the sound field produced by the expansion produces features similar to those demonstrated for rotating supersonic point sources, such as a Mach cone emanating from the source position, a spiral cylinder within which the field produces a spiralling pattern, and an inner cusp where the circular wavefronts converge. The expansion is implemented in matlab using a truncated form of the expansion, and examples of sound fields are given for both subsonic and supersonic cases.

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The physics of wedge diffraction: high-frequency approximate solution in the vicinity of shadow boundary

Ueda, Mitsuhiro

Predio Meguro Science Laboratory, Tokyo, Japan

ABSTRACT
We have proposed a new physical principle that is called virtual discontinuity principle of diffraction for analyzing waves diffracted by perfectly reflecting objects and formulated a model for calculating diffracted waves by a sum of two elementary diffracted waves. The model is applied to waves diffracted by a wedge and high-frequency approximate solution for diffracted waves is deducted from the model that is exactly the same as the one that has been already derived from the rigorous solution of waves diffracted by the wedge. It is rare to find the relation derived from the rigorous solution in the relations deducted from the model formulated by a top-down physical principle. Thus the principle is validated fairly by this result. The above approximate solution, however, does not work in the vicinity of shadow boundary. The role of diffracted waves lies in the compensation of discontinuity caused by the geometrical optics solution, that is, discontinuity at shadow boundary. Thus the above agreement may not be enough to validate the principle firmly.

In this presentation high-frequency approximate solution that works in the vicinity of shadow boundary is deducted from the model, whereas it is not succeeded in deriving this relation from the rigorous solution since shadow boundary in diffracted waves occurs at two angles and the angle for shadow boundary changes complicatedly as a function of wedge and source angles. On the other hand shadow boundary in elementary diffracted waves occurs at one angle and its angle equals to the source angle. This outstanding simplification enabled by the new principle makes it possible to deduct the high-frequency approximate solution near shadow boundary from the model and it is combined with the conventional one so that the high-frequency solution can be applied at any angle of observation. The accuracy of the approximate solution is examined by comparing it with the rigorous solution and that of the new approximate solution in the vicinity of shadow boundary is almost the same as that of the conventional one at far outside of shadow boundary. This would validate the new principle further since it should make the analysis remarkably simple. Lastly the implication of the new principle is discussed shortly.

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Acoustic versus ultrasonic breast imaging

Alizad, Azra Whaley, Dana H.Urban, Matthew W.Kinnick, Randall R.Greenleaf, James F.Fatemi, Mostafa

Mayo clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA

ABSTRACT
Vibro-acoustography (VA) is an emerging imaging technology. In this method, radiation force of ultrasound is used to vibrate tissue at low (kHz) frequencies. The resulting vibration produces an acoustic field that is detected by a sensitive hydrophone. VA can provide detail information at high resolution that is not available from conventional B-mode ultrasound (US) imaging. Here, we compare VA and US in breast imaging. An experimental VA system was used to image breasts of patients with known lesions of various kinds. Results were compared to US. Image quality was assessed based on contrast, resolution, lesion boundaries, and artifacts. VA images displayed breast cysts with well-defined borders. Fibroadenomas were seen with identifiable texture, and in some cases, with enhanced boundaries. Post-lumpectomy scars were displayed with characteristic structure. Some malignant masses were seen with identifiable spiculations. Compared to US, VA images were speckle free, had high contrast and high signal to noise ratio. Microcalcifications were particularly visible ezdrummer 2.1.6 crack - Free Activators VA. The combination of features offered by VA, such as lack of image speckle, enhanced lesion boundaries, and sensitivity to microcalcifications, are important advantages of VA over US for breast imaging. It is concluded that VA may become a choice modality for breast imaging.

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Droplet motion and deformation induced by acoustic streaming and radiation pressure

Brunet, Philippe Baudoin, Michael Bou-Matar, Olivier Zoueshtiagh, Farzam

Institut d'Electronique, de Microélectronique et de Nanotechnologies (IEMN), Université Lille 1 and UMR CNRS 8520, Avenue Poincaré, 59652 Villeneuve d'Ascq cedex, France

ABSTRACT
Acoustic waves generated at the surface of a solid substrate can induce deformation, motion and even atomization of partially wetting droplets. The characteristic time scales associated with the droplets response strongly differ from the acoustic period, suggesting the existence of nonlinear coupling between acoustic waves and droplets dynamics. If different behaviors have been observed in different experimental Honeycam 3.07 Crack Serial Key - Free Activators (droplet size, acoustic wave frequency, wetting properties of the liquid), the underlying physics remains unclear. To understand it, a parametric experimental study [P. Brunet et al., Phys. Rev. E, 81, 036315 (2010)] has been performed at a fixed frequency of 20 MHz, by varying the droplet size, the liquid viscosity and the acoustic wave intensity. In these experiments, the free surface of the droplet is modified in three different way: first a breaking of its symmetry, second global oscillations of the droplet and finally small amplitude and higher frequency "trembling modes". To explain all these deformations, two classical nonlinear acoustic driving can ve invoked: first the radiation pressure and second the acoustic streaming. The relative importance of these nonlinear phenomena strongly depends on the frequency considered. At 20 MHz, the acoustic wave is multiply reflected into the droplet and therefore the acoustic radiation pressure plays an important role. At higher frequencies, the acoustic wave hardly reaches the surface and the radiation pressure plays no role. With our experiments, we show that while both acoustic streaming and radiation pressure can induce the asymmetry of the droplet, global oscillations only appear when acoustic radiation is significant. We therefore exhibit for the first time the role played by the acoustic radiation pressure on droplets dynamics in a certain frequency range. The comprehension of these phenomena is of fundamental to minimize the energy required to handle droplet in view of harmless manipulation of biofluids.

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Beyond the geometrical focus in focused acoustic beams

Camarena, Francisco (1)Makov, Yuri N. (2)Sánchez-Morcillo, Victor (1)Adrián, Silvia (1)Jiménez, Noé (1)Redondo, Javier (1)

(1) Institut per a la Gestió Integrada de les Zones Costaneres, Universitat Politècnica de València, Spain (2) Department of Acoustics, Faculty of Physics, Moscow State University, Russia

ABSTRACT
The study of the acoustic field characteristics generated by focusing sources, both in linear and nonlinear regime, is an active field of research as they are relevant in most of the ultrasonic applications in medicine and industry. Particularly, the linear shift phenomenon (the distance between the geometrical focus of the focused source and the on-axis maximum pressure position in linear regime, real focus) was explained by Lucas and Muir in 1982 and corrected by Makov et al. in 2006 based on the parabolic approximation to the ordinary wave equation. Also, the nonlinear shift phenomenon (the movement of the pressure and intensity maxima position along the axis of focused acoustic beams under increasing driving voltages) has been related and interpreted in previous works. But, although the nonlinear shift has been observed and explained in previous studies, till the moment it has not been published a specific experiment with the objective to study, experimentally and numerically, the focal region of medium and high Fresnel number transducers, and the magnitude of the this shift. It is important to cover this region of focusing as the majority of the medical devices are there. In this work we evaluate the nonlinear shift of an ultrasonic beam with medium Fresnel number (NF = 6), both in pressure and intensity, as well as we demonstrate that the nonlinear shift is able to move the on axis maximum pressure location beyond the geometrical focus.

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Nonlinear resonant ultrasound spectroscopy and acoustic slow dynamics for micro-damage characterization, correlation to acoustic emission : new trends for heterogeneous materials Non Destructive Testing (NDT) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM)

El Guerjouma, RachidBentahar, Mourad

LAUM (Laboratoire d'Acoustique de l'Université du Maine), Université du Maineand CNRS, Le Mans, France

ABSTRACT
The characterization of damage in structural heterogeneous materials as concrete, rocks, or composites by classical linear acoustical methods, based on the measurement of ultrasonic wave velocities and/or attenuation, does not generally give the expected sensitivity to early damage detection. As such, acoustical Nonlinear methods appear like an interesting alternative. Nonlinear effects can be observed through the distortion of an ultrasonic sine wave when propagating in a medium. In that case, higher harmonics are created and classical nonlinearity predicts that the resonance frequency of the fundamental resonance mode (Young's mode) changes. In this contribution we present a NonLinear Resonance Spectroscopy (NLRS) approach and use some NLRS features as Resonance frequency shift and Q-factor change as a function of the peak amplitude to characterize damage in concrete and polymer-based composite. Materials are characterized at intact and gradually damaged states. Besides, damage was monitored using the Acoustic Emission (AE) generated by the material during the damage process. A classification of the AE signals is proposed to identify the different damage mechanisms and to understand their contribution to the evolution of the NonLinear behaviour of the materials under investigation. Furthermore, another NonLinear phenomenon we investigated in relation with damage is Acoustical Slow Dynamics (ASD) which correspond to the response of the material when an external high drive harmonic acoustic stressing applied to the material is removed. In the case of hysteretic materials the initial properties are not recovered instantaneously but take a given time, which depends on the perturbation level as well as the materials integrity. In this contribution we report observations of ASD behaviour corresponding to a polymer-based composite sample taken at the intact as well as progressively damaged states. ASD measurements are correlated Auslogics Anti-Malware 2020 Crack With Serial Key Free Download 2020 Acoustic Emission data recorded during the different damage steps. With the help of a proposed classification procedure of AE hits, damage mechanisms are identified and then correlated to the global material ASD relaxation. Original relaxation features are then identified for every damage mechanism. More particularly, relaxation time and frequency shift have been found to be very sensitive to damage creation and development for polymer-based composite and concrete. This work shows the relevance of this approach in developing new highly sensitive methods for Non Destructive Testing (NDT) and Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) purpose.


Diagnostics of elastic properties of polymerizing polyacrylamide

Korobov, A. I.Filippova, O. E.Kokshaisky, A. I.

Faculty Of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

ABSTRACT
Experimental results for the behavior of both linear and nonlinear elastic properties of polyacrylamide polymerization process are shown. Polymerization process has several stages: initiation - first appearance of active polymerization spots, chain growth - consequent joining of monomer molecules to active spots, chain joining - attachment of double monomers to chains. During the 80 minute polymerization process the initial liquid solution is transformed into gel with the different internal structure. For the diagnostics of elastic properties of initial solution during the polymerization process the automated ultrasound device employing impulse method of measurement has been used. Amplitudes of longitudinal acoustical wave at f=5MHZ and its second harmonic at f=10MHz has been measured simultaneously as well as the change of wave velocity dependence on time passed since the start of polymerization. Measurements of the amplitude at excitation frequency as a function of time allowed to calculate the change of absorption. The measurements of wave amplitudes at excitation frequency and at its second harmonic provided the change in nonlinear acoustical parameter which characterizes the non harmonic nature of molecular interaction in polymers. Density of the material and longitudinal velocity of acoustical wave closely resemble that of water and respectively equals to 1003 kg/m3 and 1500 m/sec. The increase in velocity at the beginning of polymerization due to the presence of air bubbles in the initial solution has been observed. That was followed by slow monotonous decrease of velocity as a function of time by approximately 1% of initial value. Changes in absorption and nonlinear acoustical parameter are in fact irregular and have features similar in both parameters at a given time which is believed to be due to ongoing change in the internal structure of the initial material during the polymerization process. That anomalous behavior is observed at 15-60 minute window after the start of polymerization. It is important to note that nonlinear acoustical parameter appeared to be the most sensitive to the processes occurring during polymerization as its value has changed for over 15%. The experimental results are being discussed.


Nonlinear elastic properties of solids with defects

Korobov, A. I. Rudenko, O. V. Izossimova, M. Y.

Department Of Acoustics, Faculty Of Physics, M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia

ABSTRACT
One of the interesting and perspective trends if modern acoustics is research of nonlinear processes caused with presence of mesoscale inhomogenuities and material defect structure. Presence of mesoscale inhomogenuities in solids leads to appearance of some new physical properties not presented in homogeneous solids. The example for that are such quantum phenomena as negative magnetoresistance, quantum galvanomagnetic effect, etc. The experiments conducted by number of authors have shown the defects of supramolecular structure of solids give rise to the so-called structure nonlinearity, which has local behavior and may exceed the physical nonlinearities due two lattice anharmonicity by two or three orders of magnitude. However, there still is no universally accepted definition of the quantitative characteristics of structure nonlinearity, such as, e.g., the nonlinear acoustic parameter is for traveling waves. Numerous experiments only reveal the tendency and allow no quantitative comparison of the results. We have analyzed elastic nonlinearity of solids with micro- and nanosacale defects and characteristics features of its manifestations. The meaning of the experimentally measured nonlinear parameters of a medium is discussed. The difference in meaning between the local nonlinearity, which is measured AMD Radeon Adrenalin 2021 Edition 21.5.2 Edition Crack+Activation the vicinity of a single defect and depends on the size of the region of averaging, and the effective volume nonlinearity of the medium containing numerous defects is emphasized. The local nonlinearity arising at the tip of a crack is calculated; this nonlinearity decreases with an increase in the region of second harmonic generation. The volume nonlinearity is calculated for a solid containing spherical cavities. The volume nonlinearity is also calculated for a medium containing infinitely thin cracks in the form of circular disks, which assume the shape of ellipsoids in the course of the crack opening. It has been shown that in the presence of an ensemble of disk shaped cracks (the disks are parallel to each other), contrary to the case with cavities, the amplification of nonlinearity does not depend on Poisson's ratio and linear elastic moduli of the medium. Hence, the estimations have shown the increase in nonlinearity in the presence of cracks can be greater than the nonlinearity increase in the presence of spherical cavities.

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Longitudinal magnetoelastic Riemann wave in a rod

Malkhanov, AlexeyErofeyev, Vladimir I.

Nizhny Novgorod Branch of Mechanical Engineering Research Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, Nizhny Novgorod, Russia

ABSTRACT
The propagation of longitudinal magnetoelastic waves in a rod is under our consideration.

Magnetoelasticity is a scientific branch which arose on the junction of mechanics of deformable bodies, electrodynamics and acoustics. It studies dynamic processes arising during interaction between electromagnetic and deformational fields.

The nonlinear Bernoulli's model of a rod has been used for describing longitudinal oscillations. The rod assumed an ideal conductor. For the research we've got the evolutionary equation from the system of equations of magneto-elasticity. For that we entered a small parameter into the system. The obtained evolutionary equation represents Riemann equation with regard to axial deformation.

Profile of the Riemann wave is corrupting along with propagation because different wave's pieces have different velocity. That is why at a certain moment of time the wave turns over. Under this model the time when the wave turns over depends on the value of the external magnetic field.

The profile of the wave has been taken as a sine at initial moment of time. The moment of the wave's inversion grows with increasing of the value of the external magnetic field. Thereby external magnetic field stabilizes the Riemann wave increasing the time of its inversion.

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3D numerical modeling of nonlinear continuous wave ultrasound beam propagation in homogeneous dissipative media

Mashouf, Shahram Tavakkoli, Jahan

Dept. of Physics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada

ABSTRACT
In this work, a new 3D numerical model to simulate nonlinear propagation of continuous wave ultrasound beams in homogeneous dissipative media is presented. The model implements a second-order operator splitting method in which the effects of diffraction, nonlinearity and attenuation are propagated in sequence over incremental steps. It makes use of an arbitrary 3D source geometry definition Honeycam 3.07 Crack Serial Key - Free Activators a non axi-symmetric propagation scheme, which leads to a full 3D solution to the resulting nonlinear field. The diffraction sub-step is accomplished by making use of an angular spectrum approach coupled with an enhanced formula to calculate the acoustic pressure in non-planar fields without using the standard linear relationship between pressure and particle velocity. Comparisons with other numerical models (both linear and nonlinear) as well as experimental data show good agreements. The proposed model is a particularly useful tool in carrying out accurate and efficient simulations of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) beams in tissue where the effects of nonlinearity, diffraction, and attenuation are significant.

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Time-resolved Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) of the flow in an acoustic standing wave tube

Mongeau, Luc Rafat, Yasser

Department of Mechanical Engineering, McGill University, Quebec, Canada

ABSTRACT
The flow field in an acoustic standing wave tube was measured using time-resolved particle image velocimetry (PIV). Verifications were made July 19, 2021 - Free Activators comparisons between measured and predicted acoustic particle velocities in the spa-tial domain and the time domain. The accuracy of the time-resolved PIV system was satisfactory, at least for the peri-odic flow velocity component. The steady streaming flow field was then obtained through synchronous data acquisi-tion. The streaming flow featured recirculation patterns which were different from classical Rayleigh or Schilchting streaming patterns. One possible reason is that the streaming Reynolds number was too low for classical streaming to occur.

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Evaluation of stress corrosion cracks in metals by linear and nonlinear ultrasound

Shintaku, Yohei Ohara, Yoshikazu Hashimoto, Makoto Horinouchi, Satoshi Yamanaka, Kazushi

Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan

ABSTRACT
In atomic power plant, stress corrosion cracks (SCCs) have been observed in even metals with high corrosion resistance. Although it is needed to evaluate crack depths with high accuracy, there is a concern that cracks were overlooked or underestimated by Non-Destructive Testing. One of the reasons is that SCCs formed in the water at high temperature and high pressure were closed by oxide films. To solve this problem, we focused on subharmonic waves1) generated by the interaction of large-amplitude ultrasound with closed cracks and developed a novel imaging method SPACE (Subharmonic Phased Array for Crack Evaluation). SPACE can image open and closed parts of cracks as a fundamental image (FA) and subharmonic image (SA), respectively. In early studies, we demonstrated the performance such as in SCC in SUS304 base material, but the comparison between different SCCs had not been made yet.

In this study, we evaluated the open-close behavior and crack depths of SCCs formed in different conditions by coherent measurement using SPACE and linear phased array (PA). the objects were (A): SCC introduced from a notch in Inconel600 weld metal in Tetrathionate (B): SCC obliquely extended from a fatigue crack tip in SUS304 base metal in MgCl2. As a result, in (A) we could image similar crack tips in PA and FA, but we could not image cracks in SA. Therefore, the crack tips of (A) were estimated to be open and then it is confirmed by destructive testing. On the other hand, in (B) we could imaged crack tips of equal depth in PA and FA, in addition, we sometimes imaged deeper cracks in SA than in FA. Therefore, some crack tips of (B) were estimated to be closed. It is interesting to note that SCC (A) and (B) were both introduced by accelerated test in chemical solutions, though one was opened and another was partly closed. The specimens are base material and weld meal, thus each metallographic structures differed greatly. However, there have been no report on the difference of closure state between SCC(A) and (B) caused by the difference between metallographic structures. Therefore, it would necessary to consider the difference of stress state at the points of introduction of SCCs. For this purpose it is useful to evaluate various SCCs in the same material by SPACE and to compare and discuss the crack closure behavior in detail.

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Classical and non-classical nonlinear acoustic effects discerned by airborne ultrasound

Solodov, Igor Döring, Daniel Busse, Gerd

Department for Non-Destructive Testing, Institute for Polymer Technology, University of Stuttgart, Stuttgart, Germany

ABSTRACT
Nonlinear effects in air, which are regarded as fundamentals of classical nonlinear acoustics, were experimentally investigated solely in a sonic frequency range. The present study extends the results into the ultrasonic frequency range of hundreds kHz. An acousto-optic technique of air-coupled vibrometry (ACV) has been adapted for imaging and non-invasive quantitative probing of nonlinear airborne ultrasound. At fundamental frequency of 200 kHz, the Mach number is shown to rise up to M>0.001 even for ultrasonic beams used in commercial equipment that makes the high frequency airborne ultrasound strongly nonlinear. The experiments confirm that such beams are affected by nonlinear attenuation and intense second harmonic generation. The experimental results comply well with theoretical estimations which account for interplay between acoustic dissipation and nonlinearity.

In non-perfect solid materials, the acoustic nonlinearity develops quite differently from classical lattice nonlinearity due to strongly nonlinear vibrations in the flaw areas. In this study, such non-classical local nonlinearity is shown to be accompanied by the radiation of high-frequency airborne ultrasound (Nonlinear Air-Coupled Emission (NACE). A direct visualization of the NACE in the form of higher-order harmonics and sub-harmonics from damaged areas in solid materials and components by using the ACV is reported. The ACV also quantifies the nonlinear airborne radiation produced by non-classical nonlinearity of planar defects. The imaging technique is effective in defect characterization by identifying their far-field NACE charles download since the directivity of the radiated field is a spatial Fourier transform of the vibration velocity distribution in the source (defect) area. An efficient radiation of airborne higher harmonics enables to apply conventional air-coupled transducers for detecting NACE which is used as a nonlinear "tag" to locate and image the defects.

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Resonant amplification of evanescent acoustic waves by a slab of 2D magnetic acoustic metamaterials

Sukhorukova, O. S. (1)Tarasenko, S. V. (1)Laptyeva, T. V. (1)Shavrov, V. G. (2)Yurchenko, V. M. (1)

(1) Donetsk A.A. Galkin Institute of Physics & Engineering of NASU, Ukraine (2) V.A. Kotelnikov Institute of Radioengineering & Electronics of RAS, Moscow, Russia

ABSTRACT
At the present time the search of acoustic analogies of extraordinary electromagnetic properties of metamaterials (such as superlenses, cloaking, negative refraction, double negative medium etc.) is the main direction of the composite medium of modern physical acoustics. However, despite the constantly growing number of publications devoted to this theme, all theoretical and experimental works known until now were associated exclusively with non magnetic acoustic metamaterials.

The aim of this report is the theoretical studying of the possibility of resonance amplification of SH evanescent acoustic wave by means of 2D magnetic acoustic metamaterials slab. As an example of 2D magnetic acoustic material we consider the two-component acoustically continuous structure representing an elastically isotropic nonmagnetic solid matrix in which there is a set of infinite ferro- or antiferrromagnetic rods of circular cross section with a metal covering. In the frame of effective medium approximation the necessary conditions, under which for acoustically continuous structure from2D magnetic acoustic material slab and elastically isotropic nonmagnetic layer the incident shear elastic wave (volume or evanescent) reflection coefficient is equal to zero, is determined. The anomalies found in this work in the propagation of the shear elastic wave through a layered acoustically continuous structure containing a layer of a composite magnetic material represent an acoustic analogue of the effect of amplification of photon tunneling by a layer of the uniaxial anisotropic left medium.


Vibro-acoustic behavior of micro-perforated plate to sound absorption performance

Tanaka, Toshimitsu (1)Kusakari, Tatsuhiro (1)Tsugihashi, Kazuki (2)

(1) Seikei University, Tokyo, Japan (2) Kobe Steel Ltd., Kobe, Japan

ABSTRACT
As a new sound absorption material, micro-perforated aluminum thin plate has been developed, which is strong for water, oil, or heat. But thin plate is easily vibrated by sound pressure. And the vibration affects the performance of sound absorption. We experimented to make clear the relation between the coefficient of sound absorption and the vibration of micro-perforated plate. Natural frequencies and vibration modes of micro-perforated thin aluminum plate were observed by using the scanning laser Dopper vibrometer, and the sound absorption coefficient of that plate was measured by two microphone method. We found that the sound absorption performance was affected by natural vibration modes and that there was the special mode to decrease sound absorption performance remarkably when the phase of particle velocity of air and vibration velocity of the plate became same. We also found that damping is effective to improve the local depression of the sound absorption coefficient.

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The acoustic source strength of high-energy blast waves: combining measurements and a non-linear model

van der Eerden, Frits, van den Berg, Frank

Acoustics Department, TNO Science and Industry, Delft, The Netherlands

ABSTRACT
In the densely populated area of the Netherlands, the objective of the Netherlands Ministry of Defence is to find an optimal balance between military training and the impact on the surrounding civilian community. A special case concerns large weapons, such as armor, artillery or demolitions, which create high-energy blast waves. These waves have a low frequency content, typically between 15 and 125 Hz, and can propagate over large distances. As a result it is a relative important cause for annoyance. By using a dedicated model for military training facilities, rating sound levels around the facility can be calculated for different training situations and the effect of measures can be determined. This model uses a linear sound propagation and an equivalent linear source strength. The source is measured at a sufficiently large distance, between 100 and 200m, where the sound propagation has become linear. As a consequence the effect of the ground and the meteorology is also measured and one has to correct for these effects. A more efficient approach has been tested, where the measurements are done close to the source, at typically less than 10 meters distance. The linear source strength is then calculated by applying a non-linear propagation model. The result are compared to the conventional measurement method. Another advantage of applying the non-linear model, and the nonlinear source strength, is that the effect of mitigation measures close to the source can be determined.

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Aeolian tones generated by a square cylinder with a splitter plate

Ali, Mohamed Sukri Mat (1)Doolan, Con J. (1)Wheatley, Vincent (2)

(1) School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Australia (2) School of Mechanical and Mining Engineering, The University of Queensland, Australia

ABSTRACT
The generation of aeolian tones by the interaction of a low Reynolds number, low Mach numbers flow with a rigid square cylinder attached with a rigid thin flat plate is numerically investigated. When the length of the plate is varied from L = 0.5D to 6D, where D is the side length of the square cylinder, the results can be grouped into three distinct regimes. For the first flow regime (L lesssim D), the aoelian tone levels decreases with increasing of the plate length. For the second regime (2D lesssim L lesssim 4D), the aeolian tone levels are always higher than the single square cylinder case and they increase with increasing of the plate length. For the third regime (5D lesssim L lesssim 6D), the levels of the aeolian tone decrease as the length of the plate is increases but the levels are higher than other regimes. These acoustic results can be explained in terms of fluid mechanics occurring in the near wake of the cylinder.

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Design and calibration of a small aeroacoustic beamformer

Arcondoulis, Elias J. G.Doolan, Con J.Zander, Anthony C. Brooks, Laura A.

School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, SA, Australia

ABSTRACT
The use of aeroacoustic beamforming has increased dramatically in the past decade. The primary driving force behind this has been the need to improve the noise characteristics of aircraft and automotive vehicles, coupled with ever increasing computer processing power. Aeroacoustic beamforming is an experimental technique that uses an array of microphones located in the far field of acoustic noise sources generated by a body in air flow. Each microphone measures an acoustic magnitude and relative phase based on its unique position with respect to the acoustic source(s). Beamforming algorithms process this data, typically to generate spatial noise source plots over a two dimensional grid at each frequency of interest. Much of the available aeroacoustic beamforming literature presents results at relatively high frequencies corresponding to large facilities, scale models, and available budgets, which can potentially set unrealistic goals for the development of a small-scale university research facility. This paper details the design and calibration of a small aeroacoustic beamformer, designed to investigate airfoil trailing edge noise for low to moderate Reynolds number flows. The optimisation of the microphone array, based on spatial, air flow and financial constraints, is presented. The algorithms which were used to calculate the beamformer outputs are described, as well as the array calibration process, including beamforming of various noise sources in an anechoic environment. The array is shown to successfully detect and accurately locate both tonal and broadband noise sources.

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Time-domain simulations for outdoor sound propagation : surface waves and ground effects

Blanc-Benon, Philippe (1)Dragna, Didier (1)Poisson, F. (2)

(1) Laboratoire de Mécanique des Fluides et d'Acoustique, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Ecully, France (2) Société Nationale des Chemins de Fer, Paris, France

ABSTRACT
Outdoor sound propagation involves many complex phenomena such as interactions between the acoustic waves with local wind and temperature fluctuations in the atmospheric boundary layer or terrain effects due to impedance ground and topography. Moreover, in the context of transportation noise, acoustic sources are usually broadband and in motion. Time-domain numerical solutions of the linearized Euler equations (LEE) are well suited to study broadband noise propagation outdoors, since they can take into account the interactions of the acoustic waves with local wind and temperature fluctuations in the atmospheric boundary layer. The motion of the acoustic sources can also be considered with this type of simulations, which can be useful in the context of transportation noise. Finite-difference time-domain methods are thus becoming increasingly popular in the outdoor sound propagation community. One of the main difficulties is to account for the reflection of acoustic waves over an impedance ground. A time-domain boundary condition has been recently proposed and has been implemented in a finite-difference time-domain solver using methods developed for computational aeroacoustics. We will first considered the propagation of an initial pulse over a distance of 100 m in a three-dimensional geometry in a frequency band up to 600 Hz. Surface waves which propagate close to and parallel to impedance grounds are exhibited. The numerical results are compared in time-domain with an analytical solution. The tails of the pressure signals are well predicted by the surface wave. Then a long range configuration in 2D geometry is also investigated in homogeneous conditions and in downward-refracting conditions with an impedance of a grassy ground and of a snow ground. Numerical results are compared in time domain to an analytical solution for homogeneous conditions and to a ray-tracing code for downward-refracting conditions. Near the ground, surfaces waves are the dominant arrivals in the two cases.

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Hybrid CFD/BEM approach to predicting flow induced noise

Croaker, Paul (1)Kinns, Roger (1)Kessissoglou, Nicole (1)Norrison, Daniel (2) adobe flash player cs6 crack - Crack Key For U, Widjaja, Ronny (2)Marburg, Steffen (3)

(1) School of Mechanical and Razer Cortex Game Booster 9.15.19.1412 Crack + Activation Key Free Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia (2) Maritime Platforms Division, Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Melbourne, Australia (3) Institute of Mechanics, Universität der Bundeswehr München, Neubiberg, Germany

ABSTRACT
A computational approach is proposed to extract the acoustic sources generated by low Mach number flow past a circular cylinder and to predict the associated far-field acoustic pressure. The transient hydrodynamic flow field is calculated using an incompressible computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver. The acoustic sources are extracted from the hydrodynamic flow field based on the linearised perturbed compressible equations (LPCE). These acoustic sources are combined with a boundary element method (BEM) model of a rigid circular cylinder and the far field sound pressure level is predicted. The results from this hybrid CFD/BEM approach are presented for flow past a circular cylinder with Reynolds number, ReD=100 and Mach number, M=0.15. The directivity of the radiated sound pressure field at the vortex shedding frequency agrees well with results of alternate methods available in the literature.

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Statistical estimation of turbulent trailing edge noise

Doolan, Con J. Gonzalez, C. AlbarracinHansen, Colin H.

School of Mechanical Engineering, University of Adelaide, SA, Australia

ABSTRACT
The efficient computation of turbulent airfoil trailing edge noise is important for the cost-effective design of fixed and rotary-wing aircraft, wind turbines, fans and submarines. Recently, the computation of trailing edge noise has mainly been attempted using either direct or hybrid methods of computational aeroacoustics (CAA). However, many of these approaches rely on expensive transient flow solution methods for acoustic source term calculation, such as direct numerical simulation (DNS) or large eddy simulation (LES), which aren't appropriate for engineering design purposes. This paper will present a new approach for calculating turbulent trailing edge noise. Instead of using DNS or LES for a flow solution, the method uses mean flow solutions (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes or RANS) and a statistical model to calculate acoustic source terms and radiated far-field noise. After the method is presented, results showing the noise generated by the passage of turbulent flow past a sharp edged flat plate will be shown. For the purposes of validation, the model will use mean flow data from both DNS and RANS solutions to calculate the acoustic source terms. Simulated noise will then be compared with download avg full version with crack - Activators Patch empirical model of flat-plate trailing edge noise. The paper will conclude with remarks on the accuracy of the method and a discussion of future test cases required to test its validity in more challenging flow conditions.

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Development of low-noise centrifugal fans in a refrigerator

Heo, SeungCheong, Cheolung

Pusan National University, Korea

ABSTRACT
In this paper, low-noise centrifugal fans are developed by applying a new design concept which can reduce the airfoil-self noise by inducing phase differences of potential sources on trailing edge lines of fan blades in the span-wise direction. These design concepts are realized by modifying existing linear trailing edge lines of fan blades into the inclined S-shaped trailing edge lines. First, the validity of low-design concepts are confirmed by the experiments carried out with four prototype fans. These results show that noise reductions of approximately 2 to 3.5 dB are achieved for the new fans in comparison with the original fan. These reductions are retained over the range of rotation speed of fans from 1800 rpm to 2400 rpm. The detailed comparison of sound pressure spectrums between the new fans and original fan reveals that these reductions are mainly due to broadband noise reduction but not BPF components. To analyze the detailed mechanisms of noise reduction of newly developed inclined S-shaped fans, further analysis is made by using hybrid computational aeroacoustic techniques where the computational fluid dynamics (CFD), the acoustic analogy, and the boundary method (BEM) are sequentially used. The validity of numerical results is confirmed by comparing the predicted BPF noise components with the measurement. It is found that the turbulence kinetic energy of the fluid, predicted for the inclined S-shaped fans, is less than those for the existing fan. This implies that the main mechanism for the nose reduction of newly developed fans is due to the decreased turbulence energy considered as a qualitative index for the source magnitude of broadband self-noise.

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The effect of grazing-bias flow on the self sustained oscillations in a side branch

Holmberg, Andreas Karlsson, Mikael

The Marcus Wallenberg Laboratory, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

ABSTRACT
Junctions and cavities are common elements in flow ducts such as automotive intake and exhaust systems, ventilation systems or pipelines. The aeroacoustic response of such elements is strongly influenced by the mean flow configuration in the system. The fluid-acoustic interaction is in low Mach number applications often described as the continuous interaction of hydrodynamic instabilities with the acoustic field as they are convected across the aperture. The interaction can be constructive or deconstructive, that is, both attenuation and amplification of incident sound is possible. At low amplification rates the system is still linear; however if the amplification rate is too high, the interaction becomes nonlinear leading to a self-sustained oscillation. This can lead to intense noise and even mechanical failure. The frequencies where a system potentially can sustain an oscillation can be predicted from analysis of the linear system since the frequency at which it occurs is given by the convection of the hydrodynamic instabilities across the aperture (which is not influenced by the vorticity strength). Hence, the interaction between the hydrodynamic and acoustic field collapse well with a Strouhal number based on the frequency of the incident sound and the convection velocity of the hydrodynamic disturbance. A well defined case is grazing flow past an orifice, here the characteristic length is easily defined (simply the effective length of the aperture) and the convection velocity is around half the mean flow velocity. Other flow configurations are not as obvious to define. An example is studied here; a T-junction is subjected simultaneously to grazing and bias flow, and hence, both the effective length the vorticity travels across the aperture as well as the convection velocity will change. The purpose of this work is to understand and quantify the influence on the collapse Strouhal number of grazing-bias flow.

The method is mainly experimental and involves detailed measurement on a T-junction of rectangular cross-section. The T-junction is seen as a linear acoustic three-port from which quantities of interest can be derived. The three-port is determined via the two-microphone wave decomposition method using the source switching technique. Since the whole analysis assumes ORPALIS PDF OCR Professional Free Download linear system the excitation of the system (here by loudspeakers) must not be too high, also any resonant system should be avoided. Hence, each branch of the three-port is terminated with a large resistive silencer.

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Linear stability analysis applied to flow duct acoustics

Karlsson, Mikael

Markus Wallenberg Laboratory for Sound and Vibration Research, Stockholm, Sweden

ABSTRACT
Modelling of the acoustic properties and especially the influence and interaction with mean flow in ducts is a challenge. Often the problem is reduced assuming that the system under study can be broken down into a network of linear multiports. These multiports are then characterised individually either analytically or by experiments or numerical simulations.

In control theory methods for assessing the stability of this type of networks of multiports are widely used. Applying the Nyquist stability criteria frequencies where the system can become unstable at a certain gain is identified. In this work the Nyquist stability criteria will be applied to detect frequencies where self sustained oscillation can occur in a flow duct system. The test case is a side branch orifice, realised as a T-Junction, which is subjected to grazing flow. Hydrodynamic instabilities in the shear layer interact with the acoustic field while being convected across the orifice. When the acoustic period match the travel time of the hydrodynamic instabilities incident sound can be amplified. If the amplification rate is sufficiently high, as it would be if a resonant system is present, the response become non linear resulting in a self-sustained oscillation. First the T-junction is characterised experimentally and presented as a linear acoustic three-port. This three-port is then connected to other linear elements to form a simple network. Finally the stability analysis is applied to the complete system matrix. It is shown that providing a resonant system with the appropriate characteristics to match the fluid-acoustic interaction at the orifice the system is unstable. It is also possible to find the amount of damping needed to make the system stable again. The results are of great practical use for anyone involved in designing flow duct systems. Being able to predict a non linear phenomenon such as self sustained oscillations by simple linear models is a most effective engineering tool.

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Simulations of acoustic scattering in duct systems with flow

Kierkegaard, A.Boij, S.Efraimsson, G.

MWL Sound and Vibrations, Linne FLOW Centre, KTH, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden

ABSTRACT
We present an efficient methodology to perform calculations of acoustic propagation and scattering by geometrical objects in ducts with flows. In this paper a methodology with a linearized Navier-Stokes equations solver in frequency domain is evaluated on a two-dimensional geometry of an in-duct area expansion. The Navier-Stokes equations are linearized around a time- independent mean flow that is obtained from an incompressible Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes solver which uses a k-e turbulence model. A plane wave decomposition method based on acoustic pressure and velocity is used to extract the up- and downstream propagating waves. The scattering 4Media DVD Ripper Ultimate For Windows the acoustic waves by the induct area expansion is calculated and compared to experiments. Frequencies in the plane wave range up to the cut-on frequency of the first higher order propagating acoustical mode are considered. The acoustical properties of the area expansion is presented in a scattering matrix form that can be used in acoustical two-port calculations on complex duct systems such as exhaust system mufflers and ventilation systems.

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Uncertainty assessment for outdoor sound propagation

Leroy, Olivia (1)Gauvreau, Benoit (1)Junker, Fabrice (2)de Rocquigny, Etienne (3)Bérengier, Michel (1)

(1) Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées, France (2) Électricité de France R&D, France (3) Laboratoire Mathématiques Appliquées aux Systèmes, Ecole Centrale Paris, France

ABSTRACT
Intrinsic variability due to micrometeorological effects and/or ground effects, measurement uncertainty and model uncertainty are the main sources of spreading of the parameters influencing outdoor sound propagation. Thus spreading associated to outdoor SPL is a complex combination of deterministic, stochastic and epistemic uncertainties, and can be quantified thanks to a probabilistic process. This statistical process is presented in this paper and is called Calibration Under Uncertainty (CUU). Quantitative uncertainty assessment involves a pre-existing physical system to be studied, input data which can be measured or derived from measurements, and a sufficient amount of available (experimental and/or numerical) data with an eventual human expertise. CUU couples information from experimental and modelled data taking into account their own uncertainties (measurements errors, lack of knowledge on physical behavior, etc.) under specific assumptions. Quantify the global uncertainty on SPL, rank or apportion the contributions of influent parameters to a given output quantity of interest, compare experimental and effective parameters, and more generally understand the whole input-output structure are the main tasks of such a statistical method. CUU process has been applied to more or less complex cases using a large experimental set of data (Lannemezan 2005 (F)). An application to near ground sound propagation has been first led to understand the relative influence of ground parameters. A more complex case considering large distances and including micrometeorological effects has also been fulfilled with promising results which are presented in this paper.

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Reducing the acoustic signature of a UAV propeller operating at low Reynolds numbers

Leslie, AngusWong, K. C.Auld, Doug

University of Sydney, NSW, Australia

ABSTRACT
The acoustic signature of unmanned aerial Honeycam 3.07 Crack Serial Key - Free Activators (UAVs) is one of the limiting factors facing the expanding use of these platforms for both civil and military uses. The overall propeller noise signature can be reduced by firstly reducing the motor noise and the blade passage noise, which is a result of the propellers rotational speed, diameter and shape. However, once these are optimised only modifications to the propeller self noise will help to further reduce the platforms noise signature. This investigation presents one method that will reduce the propeller self noise through tripping the boundary layer on a small propeller (diameter ~250mm) with a short chord length (15~30mm) with blades operating at low Reynolds numbers. Laminar separation bubbles commonly occur on propellers of this size as a result of the low Reynolds number conditions existing on blades. Experiments have shown that boundary layer tripping not only reduces that drag of the blade, but when a laminar separation bubble on the suction surface of the propeller blade is eliminated a noise reduction occurs as well. The reasons for this noise reduction were not initially clear, and so its characteristics were examined experimentally on a rotating propeller in both static and wind tunnel conditions. These experiments have helped to show that a number of aerofoil noise mechanisms are at work simultaneously, and do not necessarily occur as the simple turbulent or laminar boundary layer noise models as traditionally believed. Analyse of the spectral peaks has exhibited characteristics of laminar boundary layer noise, even with the presents of a laminar separation bubble which would promote boundary layer transition to occur on the blade surface. Comparisons with literature models such as the semi-empirical aerofoil self noise model of Brooks, Pope, et al (1989) have also shown agreement with laminar boundary layer noise characteristics.

The leading edge trip has proved successful in achieving a broadband reduction in simulated operational conditions which resulted in up to a ~6dBA SPL repeatable noise reduction at the sample location, but has not yet been successful in fly over tests. It is hypothesised that the laminar separation bubble is the most likely amplification source for the Tollmien-Schlichting instability waves, which then reach sufficient amplitude to be radiated as noise from the trailing edge. The elimination of the laminar separation bubble removes the strong laminar boundary layer noise source and also reduces the noise generated by the turbulent boundary layer.

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Tomographic reconstruction of the inclining vortex wind field from the acoustic travel time data between a pair of facing line array

Li, Haiyue Yamada, Akira

Tokyo University of Agriculture & Technology, Tokyo, Japan

ABSTRACT
A monitoring system for a gust of wind like a tornado is desired such as in railroads or airports. It is not realistic to use an anemometer for this purpose because ordinary anemometers are of fixed observation in situ and large numbers must be needed. In order to encounter the problem, acoustic line array elements were placed along the facing sides of the monitoring region. From the remote observation of the travel time along the multiple propagation path between the facing line elements, two-dimensional vortex air flow profile was reconstructed based on the Fourier central slice theorem valid for the vector vortex air flow fields. The previous method by the present authors was extended to cover the inclining vortex wind field including the vertical axial air flow component. To this end, the target horizontal vortex components were discriminated from the axial flow components using the symmetrical property of the travel time characteristics over the observation line. As a indoor experiment system, 10 pairs of ultrasound transmitter/receiver were arrayed on a facing sides of the measurement region of 36cm x 36cm. Vortex wind fields from the electric fan (with diameter 190 mm) were reconstructed under the various wind source conditions. The results were demonstrated that precisions of the estimated vortex parameters (maximum vortex flow speed, size and position of the vortex wind field) were satisfactory which justifies the feasibility of the present method.

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Acoustic analysis of flat plate trailing edge noise

Moreau, Danielle J.Tetlow, Matthew R.Brooks, Laura A.Doolan, Con J.

School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 5005 Australia

ABSTRACT
This paper presents an acoustic analysis of the noise generated at the trailing edge of a flat plate encountering low turbulence fluid flow. Experimental measurements were taken in an anechoic wind Honeycam 3.07 Crack Serial Key - Free Activators using four microphones: one mounted above the trailing edge, one below the trailing edge, one adjacent to the trailing edge and one above the leading edge. Honeycam 3.07 Crack Serial Key - Free Activators noise spectra produced by the flat plate were recorded at the four microphone locations. Information about the strength and directivity of the trailing edge noise is determined by comparing the four signals. Subtracting the out-of-phase signals at the microphones above and below the trailing edge is shown to increase the airfoil self-noise spectra further above that of the ambient noise and is shown to be an effective signal extraction technique.

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Comparative study on finite-difference and finite-volume implementations of the linearized Euler model for outdoor sound propagation simulations

Oshima, Takuya

Faculty of Engineering, Niigata University, Japan

ABSTRACT
Rapidly growing recent demands in accurate simulations in the processes of acoustic designs involving outdoor acoustic environments, such as road traffic noise barriers, have urged developments and applications of more advanced models that can deal with characteristics of such outdoor environments. The linearized Euler model is known to be one of the most accurate models for such advanced simulations in that the model can take into account the effects of nonuniform and even unsteady turbulent background flows and temperature gradients which supposedly have large influences to typical outdoor acoustic propagation situations. The model has traditionally been implemented using finite-difference numerics under structured grids thanks to its compatibility with higher-order schemes. However, for real world urban complex geometries such as urban city blocks it may make sense to apply finite-volume technique which in general is computationally more heavy but can handle full unstructured grids. In the present study, linearized Euler implementations based on the traditional second- and higher-order finite-difference techniques and the new unstructured finite-volume technique are compared in terms of errors from theoretical solutions and computational costs. A modified version of one of the benchmark problems laid down by the NASA/LaRC CAA workshop is used as the testcase. The accuracy of the results by the finite-volume technique turned out to match those by finite-difference techniques with slight lags, however with 20 - 300 times higher processor and memory usages.


Localization of stationary sound sources in flows by using a time-reversal method

Padois, ThomasGraveline, ValentinPrax, Final cut pro 10.4 kickass - Free ActivatorsValeau, Vincent

Département Fluides, Thermique, Combustion, Institut Pprime CNRS, Université de Poitiers, Poitiers, France

ABSTRACT
The time-reversal (TR) technique has been extensively developed over the two last decades, but very few applications

have concerned the field of aeroacoustics. The possibility of using the TR technique in the context of wind-tunnel

measurements is then investigated in this study, in order to localize a sound source in a flow. The chosen strategy is

the following: in a first experimental step, the pressure fluctuations are recorded in the far field over a linear array of

microphones, located outside the flow; in a second simulation step, the experimental signals are time-reversed and used

as input data. The time-reversed linearized Euler equations are then solved numerically in order to model the sound

propagation through the shear layer and the flow. The back-propagated pressure field is then investigated, both in terms

of energy and phase. Some preliminary simulations show that it is possible to localize a monopolar source located in a

flow by using this method. The experimental results at Mach number 0.12 show that a monopolar source at 5 kHz can

be satisfactorily located, with an error of the order of half-the acoustic wavelength. Some measurements concerning

a dipolar source are also presented: the effects of the flow on the radiation appear clearly on the data, and the source

position is estimated with an error of the order of the acoustic wavelength.

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Battlefield target localization using acoustic vector sensor on board UAV

Prabhu, C. (1)Sadasivan, S. (2)Anitha, G. (3)

(1) Madras Institute of Technology, Anna Uuniversity, Chennai, India (2) Aeronautical Development Establishment, Bangalore, India (3) Division of Avionics, Madras Institute of Technology, Anna Uuniversity, Chennai, India

ABSTRACT

Источник: https://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view/UQ:259687/ica2010_DETAILS.htm?dsi_version=b659ae592d20563644698bc75fdbf8f8

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Two-dimensional hexagonal boron nitride (2D-hBN) is an emerging 2D material that has received considerable attention due to its exceptional properties including electric insulation, low dielectric constant, easy synthesis, high-temperature stability, corrosion resistance, and chemical stability. 2D-hBN can be integrated with other 2D materials such as graphene in the next generation of electronic and optoelectronic devices and van der Waals heterostructures. In this review, unique properties of the 2D-hBN are discussed, and recent advancements in the synthesis methods such as mechanical exfoliation, liquid exfoliation, ion intercalation, chemical vapor deposition, physical vapor deposition, magnetron sputtering, pulsed laser deposition, ion sputtering deposition, and some more techniques are reviewed. Furthermore, versatile applications of 2D-hBN nanosheets in graphene electronics, tunneling barrier, dielectrics, passivation layers, deep ultraviolet light sources, single-photon emitters, sensors, and catalysis are critically analyzed. Current challenges and future perspectives for the utilization of 2D-hBN in the next-generation ultrathin electronic devices are discussed.

Источник: https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsaelm.1c00720
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